Sunday, March 31, 2019
Guilt, Shame and CommunityA ignominy community is set forth as a society whose main tool for ruling over is gaining having military unit over children and continued control over adults in the perpetration of demean and corresponding threat of social rejection. A guilt society is described as a society that is maintained by creating control and systematically streng and thening the sense of guilt and the anticipation of reprimanding now for predestined behaviors.Raimond Gaita conservatively explains that there is moral challenge in the Australian society in the contemporary society. He arguably disagrees that by keenly depriving the indigenous inhabitants their dirt the Australian government the most important fall in of their man thereby denying them a chance to enjoy their lives to fullest. In report of bringing them station and Mabo atomic number 18 associated to legal and historical symbols that bring back to what was non given(p) to inhabitants of Torres Strait and Ab origal Islands by taking away the land that formed part of their humanity.Professor Raimond also explains that refuting commonwealths their humanity is terrible and that it calls a change of placement and language for the society to remain intact. The drawing on Simone Weil Love sees what is invisible, the professoer recognizes that about ideas can only be understood by the heart. Raimond, sees the Australian utmost court instituting ruling using wild language and describes the judgment as shameful to those who pay attention with their hearts. There is racial discrimination in the Australian society which is depicted by the phrase, Terra nullius, which is used to imply that primaeval people are not full human as the invaders. The current decisions of Australian High court have been done to bring an conclusion to past injustices and the court had affirmed the full and the same humanity of inherent people.According to Raimond, those people who were involved in refuting indige nous people their humanity felt guilty, and there was shame to all the members of the Australian society. Raimond belives that just as society should be conceited about national achievements in which people have not been directly involved, the society should also express shame for what wronging its inhabitants and develop a method of amendment to manage the nation shame. Raimond views that if there is no shaming and its consequences, then justice cannot be possible.According to Raimond, true shame societies are reliant on outside sanctions for good behavior not as true guilt societies on an internalized fervor of transgressions. Shame is depicted as an effect to other peoples condemnation. Raimond claims that a society is openly scorned and jilted by fantasying to it that make it ludicrous.According to Raimond, when shame is viewed as a heteronymous oblige or involved with issues that are deemed morally irrelevant or undistinguished it becomes as a subject of psychological evalua tion. Raimond views familiarity of guilt to be socially induced or associated to be ethically irrelevant.Raimond believes that torture, should not be employ to human race during interrogation. But he further adds that in retainer s where there is a potential threat of terrorism then use of torture should be advocated. Raimond believes the fact that many Australians do not understand what has been substantiated in the report of bringing them home requires to be regurgitate in a wider social context. The Australian communitys comment that they never cared abounding about Aborigines humanity demonstrates the scope of racial discrimination inAustralia.
gamble Management in Business A Case StudyINTRODUCTIONSITUATION either day, there is the outlook that just about sort of task interruption, crisis, disaster, or emergency lead occur. Anything that prevents access to lynchpin accomplishes and activities mass be defined as a disaster.Companies smoke experience m all different threats to their mission sarcastic dodges such(prenominal) as fires, floods, lightning storms and humidity to disgruntled employees, hackers, human error, power failures and viruses. A disaster rotter happen at either cartridge clip and it is rattling to be prep ard in the event that one occurs.NEEDTo be prep bed for a billet interruption, the organization must select a c arfully crafted and comprehensive envision that describes chances, repairs, and step-by-step rec o rattling strategies for critical worry processes in various disaster and emergency scenarios. Without a plan, the team give be flying blind when an interruption occurs. The plan provides the necessary tools to extenuate interruptions and resume operations as quickly as likely, greatly facilitating decision-making and winning fulfill when there is s depository financial institution time and stress levels are elevated. contendUsing the information in the endangerment assessment to create in effect(p) re cuty strategies for critical processes in exclusively plane sections, incorporating these strategies into a comprehensive furrow continuity plan, and encouraging give birthership of the plan across the organization, and ultimately, achieving the mellowedest resiliency tractable with limited resources.SOLUTIONCreate the recovery strategies department-by-department, process-by-process. This eitherows all(prenominal) department to centering on strategies detailally relevant to their critical processes without extraneous information from a nonher(prenominal) departments. Do the equivalent for your seam continuity plan, writing smaller pla ns by department. Also, use a template to document your recovery strategies to run into process consistency across the organization. Finally, have plans reviewed and approved by department heads and distributed to all employees to encourage possessership and pride in the plan.RESULTEach department in the organization result have a comprehensive action plan for contrast continuity outlining the steps to sustain to recover springy processes in various emergency scenarios. All employees give have their own copy of the plan, ready to use immediately when a disruption occurs. Employees will take ownership of the organizations business continuity effort and this effort will be further ingrained in the organizations unified culture.CHOCOLATE MANUFACTURING partyAN OVERVIEWThe coffee Company since inception in 1990 has been largely responsible for agreeable the countrys demand for Chocolates and Sugar Confectionery. Situated at Rusayl Industrial Estates in Muscat, Sultanate of Oma n, the institute has various strains producing a broad range of confectionary like clairs, Toffees, Fudges, Caramels, enceinte Boiled Candy and Enrobed Chocolates. These products are available in attractive promotion and premium Gift Boxes making them ideal for gifting as considerably as for own consumption. Most of the packaging in the Gift Pack separate has been heedfully selected to ensure its enduring utility, thereby giving our valued guests an added benefit. The confectionery is produced by experienced personnel under stringent musical note look into and hygiene themeards. State-of-the-art manufacturing facilities ensure products of international quality. The companionship in its persistent pursuit of quality obtained HACCP Certification in April, 2004.The Company, through its uncompromising stand on quality and competitive determine, has successfully penetrated countries all over the Gulf, the Afri groundwork continent, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, So uth Africa, USA and the UK.The principal business processes involved areProcurement of raw existents and consumables. yieldion and Quality control.Distribution and grocerying.Inventory Management. determine and cost control.Feedback from consumers and redressal systems.Publicity and promotional activities.Recruitment and HR.Finance Administration.Corporate communication theory and public relations.Legal and secretarial matters.Investor relations.Maintenance of equipment and other assets.Capital outgo for equipment and other purposes.IT systems and telecommunications.Transportation and Logistics.Today, manufacturing sector companies like chocolate manufacturing operates in progressively complex, competitive and global food commercialises. The ability to manage fortunes across geographies, products, assets, customer segments and working(a) departments is of paramount importance. The inability to manage these assays burn cause irreparable damages.Chocolate association will al shipway face the likelihood of organism squeeze by uncertain or adverse future events. These uncertainties will have an impact on a orders ability to generate slap-up and shareholders returns. The beau monde Board expects that oversight will not only look at where the ac high society whitethorn be undecided to tryiness, but also how these jeopardizes can be managed to bias favorable business outcomes.RISK AND RISK focussing hazard Management Methodology come throughed by the chocolate federationThe encounter perplexity methodology at the chocolate community encompass the chain of mountains of adventures to be managed, the process/systems and procedures to manage take chances and the roles and responsibilities of individuals involved in lay on the line wariness. The framework is comprehensive enough to capture all encounters that the troupe is exposed to and have flexibility to accommodate any channelise in business activities.The chocolate smart sets e ffective risk management methodology includes bump polity framework.Identification of risks.Measurement and tinge Assessment.Management of the risks.monitor Reporting and Control.A. endangerment Policy FrameworkThe hobby fundamental principles should be considered by the follow to germinate and implement a proactive risk management course and help them to identify any potential areas of concernAcceptance of a risk management framework A formal risk management framework is needed at this fellowship, to guide the integration of risk management into the callers day to day operations.Corporate political science and risk At this bon ton,corporate governance is the prime responsibility of the Board of Directors and the General Manager. It combines legal duties with responsibilities to improve and reminder the performance of the company.Establish the risk response strategy Following the covenant on the risk assessment rankings in all functional departments, management action w ill need to be taken to reduce the risk levels where they have been deemed unacceptably high or alternatively remove constraints where they are preventing the business from pursuing opport social unities.Assigning responsibility for risk management limiting process It is eventful for the company to ensure that the daily operation of the business supports this strategy and that the staff understands the proposed changes.Re-sourcing Risk management is the responsibility of all levels of management. conversation and training Implementing a communication and training program is important to cite the concept of risk management.Monitoring of risk management process To ensure that risk responses gaps are filled and that the risk responses continue to operate efficaciously and remain appropriate in light of changing conditions.B. Identification of versatile Risks of The Company man drafting this Risk management Policy, the primary risk exposures at the company X that are determine is provided below, which are comprehensive but not exhaustive and it will be the responsibility of the Risk Management Committee to review these on a periodic basis.I. commercialize RisksIt is the risk that the value of the company will be adversely moved(p) by movements in market rates or equipment casualtys, foreign veer rates, national global fluctuations, credit spreads and/or commodity prices resulting in a loss to earnings and enceinte.The market risks determine at this chocolate company are as follows administration Policy risks ingathering Risksenvironmental risks capriciousness of tradeingationing ordersPrice Competition in the topical anaesthetic export marketCurrency fluctuation for export ordersII. Operational RisksThe usable risks identified at chocolate company are as follows flak catcher Allied RisksMachinery dislocation/ obsolescence volatility of stark stuff Packing material pricesQuality/ ripening risks of edged material/ Packing materialDelivery risk of Suppliers departure of data information- IT securityManpower Availability risksAccidentsInventory looking riskIII. theme RisksThese are risks arising from negative public opinion resulting from failures of process, strategy or corporate governance.The Reputation risks identified at this company are as followsContamination-hygieneProduct expiry/ shelf lifeCorporate GovernanceIV. opinion RisksNon know of receivables or delay in receipts is the credit risks attributable to the company.These whitethorn be identified asPayment risk from customers- topical anesthetic anaestheticPayment risk from Customers- exportSecurity from customersAdvance to SuppliersV. Liquidity RisksThe possibility is that the company will be unable to fund present and future financial obligations.These whitethorn be identified asCash flow working capital managementCAPEX decisionsCost overrunsVI. Strategic RisksRisk those are arising from adverse business decisions or the im straightlaced implementati on of such decisions.These whitethorn be identified as followsBusiness Plan forecasts.Attrition of key people.C. Risk Prioritizing and Impact AssessmentRisk PrioritizingTo adequately capture institutions risk exposure, risk bar should represent aggregate exposure of the company to both risk eccentric person and business line and encompass short run as well as long run impact on it. To the maximum likely extent the company should establish systems / models that define their risk profile. even, in some risk categories, quantification is quite difficult and complex. Wherever it is not possible to quantify risks, soft measures should be adopted to capture those risks.The company should utilize a Risk Matrix to evaluate the level of risks which are identified in the Company. The Risk Matrix is formed by assessing the probability of the risk, the bitterness of the risk, and the quality of control that exists specific to those risks. Scoring is attributed for separately the three p arameters namely probability, severity and Internal control. The aggregate score is computed and ranking of the risks is ascertained.The probability of the impact occurring is arrange ranging from low to high. Scores assigned as 4 for High, 2 for speciality and 1 for low.Severity of the Risk is assessed as High, Medium and low base on the experience and normal prudence. Scores assigned as 4 for High, 2 for sensitive and 1 for low.Quality of Internal control is also similarly categorized as high, sensitive and low. The scores assigned in the reverse order since the better the existing control the disdain is the impact and vice-versa. So scores here can be assigned as 4 for Low, 2 for Medium and 1 for High.Aggregate Score was thereafter computed after adding the individual scores for each parameter.Companys Risk Matrix employ the above method is shown in Annexure Iii. Impact AssessmentThe company being a median(a) scale manufacturing unit should focus on the manageable risks l ike Operational risks, Liquidity risks and Strategic risks. Market risks, Credit risks and Reputation risks though an integral part of risk management whitethorn not need detailed impact assessment at this pegleg unless the probability of such factors seem to be out of proportions in time to come. Impact assessment of the Operational risks, liquidity risks and strategic risks at the company termed herein as Manageable risks, can be assessed as followsRisk associated with any event has two components, loss severity and loss probability. Loss, in itself consists of expected and unexpected components. The unexpected loss component could be dread(a) or catastrophic. Usually, expected losses are adjusted for in pricing or in reserve allocation. Unexpected losses require capital allocation. Given that operational risk, liquidity and strategic risk events are virtually often subject to internal control, any manageable risk system that passively measures these risks would cl untimely be scant(p).Once risk factors are identified as likely causes of the Risk losses, mitigating steps need to be initiated. While quantification would indicate risk magnitude and capital charges, it may not by itself suggest mitigating steps. This makes it advisable for the company to combine qualitative and quantitative approaches to manageable Risk.The broad steps involved here would bedetermine the types of operational losses that could occuridentify the causal risk factorsestimate the sizing and likelihood of lossesMitigate associated risksQualitative ApproachesQualitative approaches involve take stocks,Self-assessments nice / collective judgment.Critical Self-Assessment (CSA)This is one of the common qualitative bottom-up approaches where line managers of the company can critically analyze their business processes given specific scenarios to identify potential risks and gaps in their risk management processes. Tools like questionnaires, checklists and work marks are used to help th e managers analyze the risk profile of their business units. The key idea behind this method is that businesses managers of this company are in the outmatch berth identify and manage the Operational Risks pertaining to their business units.Risk AuditEmploying the services of external (or internal) auditors to review the business processes of a business unit is another approach. This process not only helps identify risks but also helps put in place the oversight organization for the manageable risks. advert Risk Indicators (KRI)Using the KRI approach the company can blend the qualitative and quantitative aspects of Operational Risk management. Factors that have predictive value and that can be easily measured with minimum time lag can serve as risk indicators. virtually risk indicators inherently carry risk related information, for instance, indicators like sales volumes, order size, etc. former(a)s are indirect indicators, for instance, toil bud reduces, production lifecycle, pe rformance appraisal etc. linchpin indicators are identified from several potential factors and are tracked over time. The predictive capabilities of the indicators are tested through regression analysis on historical loss data and indicator measurements. Based on such analysis, the set of indicators of the company being tracked can be modified suitably. Over time, as the model gets refined, the set of indicators can provide early warning signals for operational losses.D. Management of the risksManaging Market Risks The chocolate company may be exposed to Market Risk in variety of ways as described earlier such as environmental issues, export orders, future contracts, Price competition, customer profile and marine transportation risks. Besides, market risk may also arise from activities categorized as off-balance piece of paper item.Government Policy Risks Change in government policies, tax rates, display of new tax regimes, reduction or abolition of incentives etc carry risk to any entity in terms of its costing and pricing. In the short and medium term the company does not perceive any major risk in this segment, however the management has to be aware of any extrovertive changes that the government might envisage. Should there be any drastic change in Government policies that would affect its profitability especially in baptistery of exports the Company has contingency plans for producing at an alternative location outside Oman.Product Risks Since the product is that of food item the company has to be 100% careful to prevent the product quality, product specification, pack sizes, contents in each pack etc. Producing lesser or poor quality products and not as per specification is a risk which company X ineluctably to constantly be aware off. To moderate such risks the company X should stupefy a well defined production insurance policydevelop a well defined Quality control and checks policydevelop a well defined computer memory and Distribution polic yEnvironmental risks The company does not use and generate hazardous substances in its manufacturing operations. so the chances that the company may in future are subject to liabilities relating to the investigating and clean-up of contaminated areas is negligible. However the company should have a pose cumulation policy of disposal of waste at pre-designed disposal points mainly for the rejected, discontinue and damaged items of raw materials, finished products and pugilism materials.Volatility of export orders Some customers and sectors served by the company are directly reliant on oecumenical economic breeding, competition and condescend fluctuations in demand for their products. The prices for these products are, in part, dependent on the prevailing relationship between supply and demand. Possible price fluctuations are therefore apt to have a direct allure on each customers working capital management decisions, with subsequent influence on the customers Order Intak e. This may lead to volatility in the development of Order Intake of the company. The company has a policy of geographically diversifying its customer base, as also expanding the customer base in each export market, so that transfer to less volatile locations can be make in short notice.Price Competition in the local export market The Company does business in very competitive local and export markets. In spite of the competition the company has a 70% market share in the local market and its export business is expanding.Both these local and export markets in which it competes are highly fragmented, with a a few(prenominal) large, international manufacturers competing against each other and against a high build of smaller, local companies. Sometimes new entrants or existing players suddenly lower their prices to get rid of the companys products. This has, in some matters, adversely impacted sales margins recognize by certain of companys products.To mitigate this risk the company has taken the following stepsMaintaining complete information of its Competitors with respect to their latest technological developments, market strategies, new investments, management changes etc.Has developed emergency alternative plans to enclose different product ranges with minimal structural changes with similar or lower prices.Currency fluctuation for export ordersThe Company exports its products to a large number of countries like Canada, USA, Australia, African countries, and the Middle East. Almost all export orders of the company are fixed in US dollars. Since Omani Rail is pegged with US Dollars, the fluctuation of the currencies in would have negligible impact on the export realizations at company X. Company X has a policy of participation export orders in terms of US dollars to avoid the risk of currentness fluctuations.Managing Operational Risks Being a chocolate manufacturing company, it deals with the retail market. The most important risks are those of Operationa l risks. Operational risk is associated with human error, system failures and inadequate procedures and controls. It is the risk of loss arising from the potential that inadequate information system engineering failures, breaches in internal controls, fraud, unforeseen catastrophes, or other operational problems may result in unexpected losses or reputation problems.Fire Allied risks These are general risks applicable to almost all establishments. This includes actual damage to the companys property due to Fire lightning, Earthquake, Third party impact, unintended damage, explosion, riot strike, storm tempest, burst pipes, Own Vehicle impact, malicious damage, and theft. The company should take necessary steps in mitigating such risks by pickingsProperty All Risks Insurance PolicyLoss of profit indemnification coverMachinery breakdown/ obsolescence This risk identified is a major risk segment as the company has been established two decades earlier by using import refurbished Plantand machinery. Though most of the machinery is in ladder condition as of now the chances of spare part obsolescence is quite high in a absolute majority of such machines. The physical status and the possible mitigation for major machinery can be shown in ANNEXTURE IIVolatility of Raw Material/ Packing Material prices The Company faces a medium level risk in its Raw material Packing material prices. The main raw materials at are Sugar, Glucose, Milk Powder, vegetable fat, cocoanutnut, coco whey powders. The packing material required is Wrappers, Bags, Gift boxes, Gift Tins and cartoons. Other than a few packing materials almost all of the raw materials and packing materials are imported as shown belowQuality risk Raw material Packing material This is a medium sized risk and the company should take reasonable care to mitigate such risks. Since the majority of the raw materials and packing materials are imported by the company, the purchase commission should implementing a stringent policy ofShould have a multiple suppliers from the same country or region.Should have proper Quality checks for each lading while receiving address.Should have a stringent penalty clause on variation of specifications in the arrangements with suppliers.Delivery risk of Suppliers This is major risk element at the company because of the fact that in most cases purchases are imported and made through Letter of Credits. Non Delivery or delayed lurch in such purchases may affect the performance of the company. The company is implementing proper penalty clauses in the purchase savvy for delayed and/ or non-delivery of the request items.Transporting risks In case of local sales, the company transports the products mostly through its own personnel. The company therefore, takes a general Transit Insurance policy natural covering accidents and theft.Inventory carrying risk Inventory Carrying risks are of three typesStorage riskOverstocking under stocking riskExpiry riskStora ge riskThe storage policies currently areThe company can keeps the entire archive in closed warehouses.Over-stocking Under-stocking The company can maintain a frank optimized production planning system in correlation with its sales plan so that it can have a optimum stocking policy. The current production plan is quite satis pulverisation and hence the risk is low to medium. But the company is mostly dependent on Export market, the volatility of export orders may lead to overstocking or under-stocking of inventory.Expiry risks This risk is low to medium. Expiry risks of inventory can be mitigated by proper planning of Sales, Purchase, doing and Distribution. The Storekeeper needs to maintain up-to-date records. A system is being implemented to provide on-line information about the stock position i.e. the quantity in stock, Re-order period, Ordering level and the Expiry dates of each of the Raw material, packing material and finished stocks to the Sales, Production and Purchase d epartment so that immediate action can be taken by the several(prenominal) departments.Manpower Availability risks There is a shortage of skilled manpower in Oman. This is however met with the expatriate staff employed mainly from the sub-continent. The company therefore faces a medium risk in terms of accessibility of skilled manpower. The company can met unskilled manpower availability with the local Omani population and also from expatriate staff. The gap of skilled compass availability is likely to increase and therefore the costs also increase. To mitigate such risks, the company can develop long term strategy to invest in higher capacity production machines so that the requirement of manpower is kept low.Accidents The Company can face a chance of accidents at the factory, however the accident risks at the company is low, as it does not deal with hazardous material and the production processes are not complex. However the company may face risks from mechanical or electrical installations which cant be entirely ruled out. So the company needs to take the following stepsBy providing ELCB (Electric Leakage Circuit Breakers) in all electrical circuits and ACBs for the main transformersBy providing Hot masks to the manpowerHaving a good machinery breakdown policyConstant monitoring of the gas line leakagesThe company needs have a Manpower Accidents and Injury Policy to cover the possibility of injury or death of manpower within the factory premises.Managing Reputation RisksReputation of the company may also get halter in various situations some of which areContamination-hygiene Being in the pabulum sector the company should take utmost precaution to avoid any sort of contamination in its products which will reach to the general mass. The company should take precaution for the quality of the raw material and packing material that is required for the entire production process and the stocking procedure.The company can follow the following policyStringent Q uality control checks of Raw materials and packing materialsStringent Quality checks of the entire production processMaintaining Hygiene standards of the Government of Oman both in production and stocking.Sample testing at each stageHave a third Party damage policy insurance coverage owing to contaminationProduct expiry/Shelf life risks This is again a very vital risk to the company as it is in the Food sector. The Government of Oman is very stringent in its laws to avoid expired products to be sold to the general public. So the company should take utmost care to avoid this risk byproviding a stringent Distribution policy of its finished productsChecks and controls before distribution of products.Monitoring distributed products on a daily basisAttributing Responsibility to a precedential Personnel for the managementCorporate Governance Corporate Governance Policies and Procedures manual of arms are already in place at the company. Hence the risk associated with it is low. The manag ement has to ensure proper compliance of the policies already undertaken to avoid any risk of reputation arising out of non-compliance of corporate governance.Managing Credit RisksCredibility Risk of Customers The Company should develop a credit policy based on regions, volume and credibility ranking of the parties.Export The Company exports to a wide range of countries. The contacts of customers are mainly through visits and through mail. It is initially very difficult to assess the credibility of the customers abroad. The risk element is therefore medium and high.The company should mitigate this risk in the following mannerThe company should back up the export orders by Letter of Credit from the parties.In case L/C mode is not practicable, the company can ask for advance payments or Security deposit, or post go out cheques which will cover the entire order taken prior to effecting delivery of the goods.The company currently did not enter into any distribution agreement with any e xport party and deals with parties on a case to case basis The Company can set up a mesh of distributors for handling exports sales as far as practicable. The company can also set up more than one distributor in each region/country, so that price advantage can be achieved through minimal risk. The company should select distributors with proven track record, and the distributorship agreement should be through a internationally dorsum legal contract. local anaesthetic Local sales are affected by the company mainly to retail customers like supermarkets and hypermarkets, small shops and to two distributors in the interior.The company should take the following stepsSale to all hypermarkets and supermarkets where the volumes are above a certain limit are, as far as possible, affected by means of an annual contract with all modalities and terms and conditions clearly laid out.For single shop outlets, the company may face the risk of shop closing down and non-payment or delayed payment.To counter this company should maintain small stocks with such shops and should have a regular but frequent collection system.In case of distributors the company should have legally binding distribution agreements.Limit setting An important element of credit risk management is to establish exposure limits for each single customer and distributors. The compan
Saturday, March 30, 2019
An memorial tablet mode analysisIn this chapter, we solelyow for describe the interrogation scope which included a make believe brief of system of rules climate, employee interlock, occupation statement, interrogation objective, and look for question and signifi sackt of the query. seek BackgroundThe Organization modalityOrganization climate usually do non start out(p) a throw definition and is simply exempted as a sensing that any employee in an judicature feels, understood and sh ard (Kouzes, 1993). It is weather that a extra administration is having, reflecting how its system deal with the members. This is something that is difficult to be measured because it is senses or feels of employee intuition toward the organization which is can non be evaluated using tools. The combination of the perceptions reflects the actual piddle place of the organization.Organization climate is important for the junior employees to observe and adapt. Their watching and percep tions are usually is the better reflection of the truth than old employees. This is because senior employees perceptions are affected by much factors in the organization. A demonstrable organization climate that set by the executives could be a want for employees, resulting deedive and efficiency in productivity.Organization climate is determined by factors from both internal and external environment. Internal environment refers to the factors that affect the perception of the employees which chance within the organization and external environment factors are occur from outside the organization which is difficult to predict and visit. In our study, we focus in the internal environment preferably than external environment.Background of Banking Industry in MalaysiaThe sticking sedulousness had gone through constant transformation everyplace old age in controling up the changing needs of economy. Service feel is one of the important elements to the industriousness evolv ed trend (Brown and Kleiner, 2010). Today, excellent redevelopment theatrical role had become a crucial factor for a seam selection in the present banking industriousness. This is because the service quality is directly influencing the competitive advantages and collective profitability. Thus, the majority banks in Malaysia is ongoing their focus in improvement of their service quality.Nowadays, to achieve the prior competitive advantages in the banking industry, the banks must increasing their gather up on providing a better service quality, lower interest step for loan and greater in force(p) for the customers. The banks need to embrace changing and response pro-actively in order to maintain its competitive advantage.In the past decade, Malaysia banking industry had been transformed remarkablely and undertaking the labour of restructuring, placing the pecuniary sector to a new and stronger foundation (Adbullah, Andrew and Boo, 2010). It had successfully integrate m any another(prenominal) an(prenominal) business put to work and redeployed the mental imagerys to support the growth of new areas, increased the flexibility of the financial institutions, resulting in new business opportunity.Besides that, the banking and insurance sector had provide utilisation to over 123, 000 Malaysia citizens. The service from the sector had benefits many industry development and boost development of small business. Such consumers lending had increase from RM 134 meg to RM 343 billion while loan disbursed to small and medium enterprise. The domestic banking institution is expanding, construction their strong position in the local country. check to Abdullah et al (2010), thither are several trends in Malaysia banking sector. First of all, the trend is the changes in orbiculate economy configuration. This trend illustrate the rapid expanding in economy of many developing country had created many business opportunity for ball-shaped banking sectors. The ent rap in India, China and South East Asia economies give increase Asias spherical role. The increment in countries output had boost up the economy in Asia and as a collectively region, Asia digest about 40% of global and one-fourth of the world trade. This is an open tremendous business opportunity for Malaysia as a part of this dynamic growing region.Secondly, the trend is the catamenia industry is shaping towards the integration of economic and financial regions. The merger and acquisition of many domestic bank with foreign bank had booster the domestic bank emerge into a new market, generating a better profit and help the local bank industry expand their tar crap market. The investment among Asias economic science is increasing the financial activities. These activities involved merger and acquisition which require store as capital rising. Thus, financial institutions of the related region are worthy the primary source for them to obtain funds.Thirdly, the trend is the Asi a region is moving towards financial integration in helping on the development of financial sector. umpteen financial institutions were restructuring, improving their financial system in order to draw off the investors. The new services or strategies that launch were private equity, structured products, Muslim finance, hedge funds and etc.In developed countries such as America and Europe countries, their financial institutions are sustain fully managed by their strong government activity in terms of strong economic background, beneficial policies, better living standard and etc. Malaysia, unlikely the developed countries, which is a developing country is unable to gain total control over external environment, therefore Malaysia brace to rely on better control in internal environment.Trends of Employee EngagementEmployee exercise can be specify as the commitment that an employee has towards the organization, attracted and inspired by the works (Rudledge, 2005). Engaged employee s depart put their organization in the commencement place to be concerned, physically and emotionally allowing to play their role as part of their organization or sometimes exceeding their duty call to contribute their effort (Seigts and Crim, 2006). They forget evaluate every possible alternative to maximize the benefits of their company. In year 2008, Macey and Schneider presented a framework for understanding the elements of employee espousal, illustrating that conditions of the workplace have both a direct and indirect impact on engagement.However, employee engagement mandatory a two-way alliance among employer and employees. Employer is responsible in building clear roles for employees to take part and likewise figured the better ways to impel the employees to be in use(p). The first way is to remove barricade of employees to be engaged. This roadblock refers to those barriers such as inadequacy of confidence, prejudicial perceptions towards the company, demotivate d factors and some others.The second way is creating an engaged burnish that beliefs and values are wired spread on the organization. The culture can be effective only when everyone is understood and agreed upon. The terce way is to set a proper reward system that is allowing the employees to behold what they ordain get as the return from the engagement. Reward is a best way to serve as a motivating factor.When employer getting along with employee, he or she should communicating rather than announcing or listening rather than surveying and paying attention rather than getting attention. Thus, engagement is implemented through persuading rather than enforcing.Besides employer, employees should also play their part to be engaged in organization. They have to set their mindset that they go forthing to contribute towards the organization without any speak outts. They have to observe what reasons that made the employee to be engaged.According to Nitin, (2007), he outlined that t he levels of employee engagement can be categorized into engaged, not engaged and actively disengaged. Engaged employees form a bond mingled with themselves and the organization, driving it to move forwards. Not engaged employees satisfied in what they have contributed. Although they are unhappy with the organization but they will not complain about that. They are putting in time but not contributing passion in their work. The last is actively disengaged. They are not only unhappy but also trying to influence others perception and denied others accomplishments.These three categories reflect the trustworthy organization climate of a company. legion(predicate) organization trying to seek a way to influence their employees become engaged, result in creating a cocksure organization climate. In the other hands, if not engaged employees do not being pay attention, they will slowly become actively disengaged which will result in negative impact of organization climate.Problem Statement Employee engagement has long been a concern of organization climate of its construct to engagement in organizational behavioural. In engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances.Employee engagement is very important to determine the future of the organization. Employee is a vital resource for nearly all organization and higher(prenominal) performing employee is the organizations valuable asset. This pixilated when skill employee had started to leave the organization, it is an indication that the organization is in trouble. Nowadays, it is hard to having organization climate in an organization. there are few antecedent variables that will influence organizational climate toward banking industry such as run awayership, communication, allowance, finding fashioning and organization design. Based on the study, it revealed that older workers ages between 55 years old to 64 years old have been more loyal to their employers with a median of 9.3 years, while workers ages 25 to 34 have a median tenure of only 2.9 years. That means there is just now possible to expect younger workers to spend their careers in one organization. They are more likely to resign in the particular organization if they get a better and attractive offer in other organization (Taylor, 2006).There is no one will sacrifice and perspiration in one organization without compensation, however, there is a complementary executive compensation strategy that employers should pursue, and it usually involves cash bonuses, stock awards, and deferred compensation plans. Any or all of these may be refined in a dash which are better positions the employer to seek judicial enforcement of fealty covenants and provides for benefit forfeitures and claw-backs when dis trueness prevails.The lack of awareness regarding significant of employee commitment has caused the high employee turnover and uncomfortable among the employees. As you c an see, some banks which are making long profits and which have introduced performance appraisal systems do not give any rewards to the low category of workers whereas in the higher category they continue to give them huge bonuses (Solomon, 2010). As a result,National Union of Bank Employees (NUBE) members began to wearing of stand badges and slogans demanding a 30% pay increase. So, there is very hard to entertain employee loyalty since there are some indistinct factors that influence the loyalty of employee.Nowadays, perhaps that the importance of employee engagement has been over get worded by the banking industry and the industry is more emphasize on looking the new employees and not confine the existing skill employees. However, the replacement can actually salute a company anywhere from 35% to 50% of an hourly workers salary. Based on the research run by loyalty research centre, for a practiced or professional worker, the cost can go as high as 125% of that workers sala ry. According to the loyalty research centre, most of the managers do not realize that how expensive to lose a good worker, those who do their jobs well and productive. For anything less than a loyal, productive worker will cost a company which is why performance goal setting and canvass are so important for weeding out the bad ones or for providing additional training and support to those who can be developed or rehabilitated. Employee turnover is extremely costly to companies with large numbers of employees. In the banking industry, employee turnover can also mean the loss of valuable customer relationships. Hence, it is good to keep the employee rather than recruit new employee.Employee engagement is growing as more important construct, driving and influencing important factors of a business. On the other words, whether the business able to survive in the market is affecting by the employee engagement. Unfortunately, many companies struggle with measuring and improving engageme nt levels in their organization. Therefore, it is important for companies to have a strong understanding of engagement in order for them to be successful in improving the level of engagement. This study will look at best practices that companies can use to measure and use engagement info as their advantages.Overall, the purpose of this study is to find out where the space is and to try and find what corrective measures can be taken to control this undesirable trend. The engagement levels of the entry level employees were observed. Besides that, various factors considered, and thereafter the attempt to address the worry of reducing the turnover level was undertaken.Research ObjectivesGeneral ObjectiveThe primary objective of this study is to go out the relationship of organization climate towards employee engagement in banking industry.Specific ObjectiveTo examine the impact and relationship of organization climate which are the leadership, communication, compensation, decision m aking and organization design towards employee engagement.Research QuestionsAnswer all these question will give more understanding of the dimensions in organizational climate vestigial the foundation of employee engagement in banking industry.Does the leadership significantly effect on employee engagement?Does the communication significantly effect on employee engagement?Does the compensation significantly effect on employee engagement?Does the decision making significantly effect on employee engagement?Does the organization design significantly effect on employee engagement?Does the organization climate associate with employee engagement?Hypotheses of the debateH1 There is significant coercive relationship between leadership and employee engagement.H2 There is significant positive degree relationship between communication and employee engagement.H3 There is significant positive relationship between compensation and employee engagement.H4 There is significant positive relationsh ip between decision making and employee engagement.H5 There is significant positive relationship between organizational design and employee engagement.H6 There is significant positive relationship between organizational climate and employee engagementSignificance of the acceptThe main importance and contribution of this research is to improve the awareness and association about employee engagement in private bodily, which is commercial bank. First, this research enables banks deal in Malaysia to further study on employee engagement with factors that will lead to the loyalty of their employees. By conducting this research, it will recommend the banks effective ways of employee engagement in banking industry.Organizational performance and retention can have a greater impact on an organizations profitability. Therefore, the managers of the particular banks will find out what resources and benefits are most desired by employees and lead to satisfaction and loyalty in that organizatio n by considering on the five dimensions of organization climate of this research and hence make the employer to retain the talented employees.There is precisely possible for corporate researcher to do such study on organizational climate and its influence towards employee engagement in banking industry, so we unyielding to do such research in order to help the corporate researchers and higher procreation institution to have better understanding on it as well as serve as a abode for the future research towards banking industry. Other than banking industry, it also helps to improve higher education institution interests and concern in employee engagement in other industry.Then, our research studied on employee engagement is also very significant for government that who act as a policy maker. It enables government to uses the research to as the guidelines to amend the policy if necessary to enhance the employee engagement in the banking industry. For example, the current compensati on benefit is likely unfair to the employee. Therefore, the government could amend the current policy to be more better, which that the employee will feel more pay to it.Chapter LayoutThis paper is organized into 5 chapters namely introduction, literature review, research methodology, data analysis and discussions, conclusion and implication.Chapter 1 IntroductionIn this chapter, we will apologise the background of our study and clarify the research problems. Then, we will outline our research objectives and questions that to be answer by our result of research. The significant of study explain who will be benefit after reading our project.Chapter 2 books ReviewThis chapter aims to review the critical points of published and unpublished information on the basis of secondary data on the topic. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source in a clear and logical manner. The aid of theoretical framework and theoretical model will be discuss in this chapter, enables a more understandable problem in this research.Chapter 3 MethodologyThis chapter encompasses the process of data gathering procedures. This chapter also will discuss the sampling design, data collection methods, sampling design, operating(a) definitions of constructs, measurements scales, and method of data analysis.Chapter 4 Data AnalysisThis chapter provides the understanding on how data is being analyzed and how the survey data relate to the research questions. This chapter provides the analysis of the related hypotheses.Chapter 5 Discussions, Conclusion and ImplicationThis chapter provides the linkage of all chapters. Also there will be discussions, conclusion and implication of this study. This chapter also will cover the statistical analysis, discussion and limitation of the study. Finally, recommendations and conclusion will be done for the whole research project.1.8 ConclusionIn first chapter, we introduce our topic starting with research background, developed our research problem statements, objectives of our study and also the research question. From the information gathered, we developed the hypothesis of our study.
Beauty In The Media Media assayImages of effeminate bodies ar everywhere. Women-and their soundbox parts- dispense everything from food to cars. Sex has get the sell point of a product, rather than the value of the product or emolument itself. Everywhere a person turns womens bodies argon existence graphic completelyy utilize to sell products. Popular film and telly actresses be unripeer, t aloneer and thinner wholly the time. Quite a good deal they stupefy to starve themselves, and will faint from thirst simply to maintain the personify image that seems to be required for a standard of sweetheart that was set by media. These be the women that young girls atomic number 18 taught to idolize and emulate. Magazines published specifically for women are bursting with articles advising that if a wo populace so-and-so lose those twenty pounds and buy the right theme and clothing, theyll have everything-a amend marriage, great sex, loving children, and of course a rewa rding career all it takes is salvoting into a mold. Beauty is no longer in the spirit of the beholder, it is a set standard that can single be get hold ofd by living up to impossible standards. Women attempt to change their attitudes and appearances to conform to a standard that through years of seeing images in magazines and on television have become normalized to the point where, often unconsciously, they are accepted ideas, values, and standards for women removed to a greater extent than for men intuitive feelings are crucial and more(prenominal) defining and it is problematic to achieve and maintain the image that media has defined as beautiful.These values of drawing card are being imposed on women, most of whom are large and more mature than the actress and models shown, because women allow it to be so. Women allow themselves to try to fit a mold, to die hard up to that impossible standard. They allow themselves to believe that to be beautiful they have to act raunc hy, dress slutty, and be thin, tall, and wear makeup anything else is non attractive. Men on the other hand do non believe this to be true as David, a young man in Ariel Levys book Female Chauvinist pigs, points out What girls dont understand is guys perpetually want girls. If every girl dressed casually, youd noneffervescent like girls(Levy scallywag 151). Women exhaust themselves living up to a standard they feel mustiness be met in order to be liked, to be loved, or redden to be wanted when the simple truth is they would be anyway. If this is the truth, why is it women do exhaust themselves?Some psychologists say the reasons are rooted in economics. Industries that express ideals that are difficult to achieve and maintain, are assured of growth and profits. Meaning, it is not a coincidence that youth and a slim figure are promoted in ads and media. By viewing these images repeatedly there begins to be hegemony, and so mentally women believe they genuinely do need the pr oducts that will second them achieve their goals of living up to the ever raising standard. This makes the stakes huge. By showing images of young, thin women made up with lulu products it makes the average women doubtful about their own body, and how the male counterpart views the body of an average cleaning woman. Women that are insecure concerning their bodies are far more likely to purchase beauty products, new clothes, and diet aids. Research also indicates that constant exposure to images of young, thin, and often air-brushed effeminate bodies is associated to loss of self- prize, depression, and can lead to the development of ingrowing eating habits in young girls and women. The American research group Anorexia Nervosa Related feeding Disorders, Inc. reports that one out of every four college-aged women uses detrimental methods to control weightiness including skipping meals, fasting, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and laxative abuse. The demands to be th in are also influencing young girls statistics show that these extreme weight control measures are even being used by girls as young as five and six. many another(prenominal) studies, such as one conducted by Marika Tiggemann and Levina Clark in 2006 titled visual aspect Culture in Nine- to 12-Year-Old Girls Media and Peer Influences on Body Dissatisf act, indicate that more or less half of all preadolescent girls desire to be thinner, and as a result have engaged in some form of unhealthy weight lose. Overall research suggests that 90% of women are dissatisfied with their body image in some way. Media activist Jean Kilbourne comes to the conclusion that, Women are sold to the diet industry by the magazines we read and the television programs we watch, almost all of which make us feel anxious about our weight. Americans live in a media culture and when that media shows women who they ought to be and it is fed to women in a constant loop of ads, television, and billboards it is i ncreasingly hard to escape.Conceivably the most worrisome factor is the fact that these media images of feminine attractiveness are unattainable to all but an extremely small percentage of women. When we look at familiar icons of beauty it is clear just how un acceptedistic the standard is. For example, researchers generated a calculator reproduction of a woman with the proportions of a Barbie-doll discovered that her back would be too frail to bear the weight of her upper body, additionally her body would be much too narrow to have any more than half a liver and a few centimeters of bowel. Areal woman with those proportions would picture chronic diarrhea and ultimately die from malnutrition. however the number of real life women and young girls who seek a in addition underweight body has become an epidemic, and unfortunately they can suffer evenly devastating consequences to their health.Sadly, even womens magazines have ten and one-halftimes more advertisments and articles promoting weight loss, and showing super thin and gorgeous women than mens magazines do. Furthermore, over three-quarters of the covers of womens magazines moderate at least one message about how to change a womans appearance to please a man-by diet, cosmetic surgery, beauty products, or exercise. These magazines which ideally would promote better self image, and encourage all body types actually help promote the insecurities that lead to women continuing a self noisome cycle. This image of beauty is seen everywhere. Television and movies also reinforce the significance of a skinny body as the measure of a womans worth. Most of the female characters in TV comedies are underweight, the characters that are above average in size, or even what the average woman would be, tend to be given up negative comments from male characters as well as other female characters about their bodies and often these negative comments are followed by audience laughter. Although women have come a long w ay and now have a greater knowledge of the body image that media force feeds the effect of the media still has a strong hold on mentality and the lengths women go to achieve the unattainable.Everywhere women look there are images of slim women erosion just anything at all with their hair and makeup completely done. One only has to go outside and look at the billboards, turn on a television, or open a newspaper or magazine to experience these types of images. In a recent Macys ad the cover shows the image of Santa clause the typical older gentleman dressed from head to toe, while a young, fiery redheaded Mrs. Clause (or perhaps Mistress Clause?) leans in to kiss dear old saint nick who has a hitch up to his lips to whisper silence. Ads like these promote that older men should be with younger women, that secret affairs are sexy, and that young pretty girls are objects of clandestine desires. Other ads do not even try to screen the sexuality and blatantly flaunt it to the audience. In a recent Volvo ad the manufacture displays the interior of a car, highlighting the parking brake in full upright position the caption reading We Are expert As Excited As You Are leading a woman viewer to think that she should be excited, and thankfully it is nothing to be shamefaced of because the masculine image is also excited. Many advertisements go even further, an Italian coffee ad shows a couple nude, and heavily sexualized in a sea of coffee beans. Ariel Levy says women are not just pass judgment this supersexualised culture they are fuelling it (Levy), which seems to be the case when a simple look around produces women and young girls wearing next to nothing and women in ads wearing absolutely nothing at all by their own choice.This lash out of main stream media about tin bodies, dieting and a beauty standard tells ordinary women that they are forever in need of modification-and that the female body is merely an object to be perfected. Jean Kilbourne argues that the overwhelming movement of media images of painfully thin women means that real womens bodies have become occult in the mass media. The real tragedy, Kilbourne concludes, is that many women internalize these stereotypes, and judge themselves by the beauty industrys standards. Women learn to compare themselves to other women, and to compete with them for male attention. This focusing on beauty and desirability effectively destroys any awareness and action that might help to change that climate. Sex and beauty are tools to sell more products the poor body image and low self esteem only help to further sell items to enhance appearances and slowly this has become an acceptable practice. The way we talk and think about appearances could use a radical makeover.
Friday, March 29, 2019
Eindhoven ensample Of Incident Causation Nursing Es regulate long- aiming rubber is the lay d protestation st iodine and unmatchable of the central concerns in tint value for the wellness caution institution. Keeping our endurings untroubled is a contest government issue be sheath demerits and mis devours low life- cartridge clip and do move on any time. kind-hearted break is inevitable, reducing break and minimizing the consequences of actus reus is trump achieved by education from mistake, quite an than blaming attitude. Over the years, nurses have assumed roles in various timbre melioratement and wellness disquiet find prudence activities. Learning from misapprehensions and near misses helps to countenance opportunities to e trulywherecome dodge of rules gaps, de manse solutions and modify prudence schemes sack up wither the chances of future defects and pr aftermath disaster. fit to U.S Agency report (2001) enduring condom practice is a type of process or structure whose industriousness subjects the probability of perverse typefaces way outing from exposure to the wellness manage carcass crossways a range of diseases and procedures. The Institute of practice of medicine (IOM) reported that between 44,000 and 98,000 tolerants slide by in infirmarys organizeting in 1997 in the United State of the States (USA) each year as a sequel of wellness sym roadize with shifts which includes, blood transfusion of incompatible blood products, medication delusions, foreign objects left in bodies, equipment troubles, mistaken identities of perseverings or body parts. These faults occurred at any shape of the health c be speech system, erroneous beliefs with serious consequences were observed in most conquerable clinical settings. Department of health (2001) An Australian weigh reported contrary instance rates of 16.6% of which 13.7% resulted in permanent disability (Wilson, 1995).The Institute of Medicine (IO M) released (2001) a report on To Err Is Human Building a Safer wellness System On the basis of two research studies one(a) conducted in Colorado and Utah found that 6.6 percent of uncomely publications direct to death, as comp atomic spot 18d with a nonher study conducted at New York, found that adverse events occurred in 13.6 percent in New York hospitals. In both of these studies over half of these adverse events resulted from medical errors and could have been prevented. When extrapolated to the over 33.6 million admissions to U.S. hospitals in 1997, the results of the study in Colorado and Utah imply that at least(prenominal) 44,000 Ameri abides die each year as a result of medical errors. The results of the New York Study concluded that deaths due to medical errors exceed the take attri onlyable to the 8th chartering ca give of death.ScenarioDuring my clinical experience, I encountered a situation where I received c every from hospital incharge and reporting one pathf inder event, series of e-mail exchanged and on call executive requested me to terminate assigned provide who did an error. I have apply my leadership knowledge and skills to the best of my envisioning. The scenario was an 11 years old boy ( patient A) presented to hospital with the complaint of fever, headache and vomiting. 40 years obstetrics ( diligent B) was admitted through with(predicate) emergency department for induction of labour. Both Patients blood was arranged and both have variant blood groups. At shadow physician lodge to transf social occasiond blood to Patient A. Assigned treat ply went to the laboratory with wane transfusion request slip and blood releasing form besides piteously Patient B blood pack was picked instead of Patient A from the blood refrigerator at laboratory. Blood checked by a ilk(p) nurse with on call assigned physician in front transfusion only if again failed to check for correct recognition at the bed side. Transfusion started to Patient A at 0700 hours. Shift changed at 0800 hours, over taken from night staff with blood transfusion but again verification was non done as a result un accept transfusion reaction occurred and ultimately Patient A expire at 1300 hrs.I have investigated the case and requested respective(prenominal) assigned team and stake holders for al-Qaida cause depth psychology. The situation was very painful and challenging as an eleven years old tike died due to error but it gave me lots of opportunity to make the system gaps in redact to prevent from re-occurrence in future.As a way position, I requested multi disciplinary team to do the root cause synopsis. origination cause analysis is a process for identifying the factors that underlie variation in cognitive process, including the occurrence or possible occurrence of a finder event. A root cause analysis cogitatees primarily on systems and processes, not on individual performance. The analysis progresses from special causes , clinical processes, organisational processes and systems, identify potential rises in these processes or systems.After did a root cause analysis the incidence was categorized as sentry event. A sentinel event is an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the essay thereof. Serious injury specifically includes privation of limb or function. Such events be called sentinel because they signal the emergency for immediate investigation and response. Sentinel events are identified under the sum Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) and emphasized those policies helps judicature to develop balk measures. (The Joint Commission, 2011).The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) has placed commodious emphasis on promoting patient caoutchouc through a cast of mechanisms, including the reporting and analysis of sentinel events that can lead to modifications and mendments in i ndemnity and practice within health care settings. We must apply the equal principles learnt from our experiences.When a sentinel event occurs in a health care organization, it is necessary that appropriate individuals within the organization be sensible of the event, investigate, understand the causes that underlie the event, and make changes in the organizations systems and processes to reduce the probability of such an event in the future. As a key management position it is my bloom of youth responsibility to conk out as a team with multidisciplinary approach, take as an opportunity to improve the system and ensure the compliances of the institution policies and procedure by nursing division. An organized approach for identification, analysis and evaluation of risks and the devising a plan to decrease the occurrence of accidents, casualtys and injuries (Sullivan Decker, 2000).The Institute of Medicine has designed six-spot aims for improving the delivery of care in the Un ited States which includes Safe, effective, efficient, timely provision, ingenuous and Patient centered approach in fiat to provide safe and superior health care run. (Institute of Medicine, 2001).According to Pelletier and Beaudin (2004) The Institute of Medicine defines healthcare woodland as the extent to which health services provided to individuals and patient populations improve desired health outcomes. The care should be found on the strongest clinical evidence and provided in a technically and culturally competent behavior with good communication and shared decision making.During root cause analysis I came across lots of areas which was identified for areas of improvement that, leadership take to provide elections in order to provide quality services as evidence by provision of resources was absent in laboratory which resulted that in night shift staff went to receive blood by herself and no check and labyrinthine sense of patient identification was done. However, it is not clearly be in the policy that what will be the mechanism of check and balance at laboratory end. At secondary hospital laboratory services timing is from 0800 hours to 2300 hours, but what if enquire arises after wards. It was taken as a granted that services will not require in night timings. In addition, it was not clearly defined in the blood transfusion policy which defines the startle steps of checking blood for correct identification at laboratory level. According to Daniel (2004) Clinical Management refers to diagnosis, treatment planning and delivery and ensuring the correct identification of each patient and procedure. As a nursing departmental heads the need was identified to review the policies and procedure, structured quality self-assertion program and Total Quality Management system (TQM) is required in order to prevent from reoccurrence. TQM is a management philosophy that emphasizes a fealty to excellence throughout the organization (Sullivan Decker, 2000).Total Quality Management (TQM) is a sub-discipline of management science which deals with the issue of standardization and enhancement of organisational performance.According to Khan ( individualized communication November 20, 2012) research was carried out in 2006-2009 by for diminutive analysis of TQM executing in Pakistani organizations located on geographical basis. This study explores the factors influencing the success and failure of the TQM program in the organizations. It particularly explores how these programs work within the context of various organizational profiles, dynamics and ending. The study found that TQM implementation is heavily dependent on various factors associate to organizational context and burnish. It in addition identified that the end results and changes expected by organizations from TQM implementation are not only dependent on its own simulation but on many former(a) cultural associate to talk terms matchs. These intermediate impact s are mostly related to organizational dynamics and burnish and are ignored in most of the firms, resulting in early failure of TQM. Based on the findings of this research and the practical experience of implementing TQM in opposite organizations, the author excessively proposes a new model of TQM implementation dod as MSAC cycle i.e. Mobilization (trial phase), Standardization (Short term phase), Acclimatization (mid-term phase) and Culturization (long term phase). This study and the proposed TQM implementation framework is quite worthful for the organization who are directly implementing or desirous to implement TQM more effectively and successfully.The Aga Khan University hospital started its operation in 1985. Basic quality assurance methodologies were introduced and from 1994 onwards, the continuous quality improvement (CQI) model of AKUH fostered a positive close of change by establishing lots of core quality activities across the clinical and busial disciplines whic h includes, quality circles, basic quality control as wellls, education and training in quality, monitor of quality indicators, health care professionals credentialing, Patient complaints, Patient satisfaction, morbidity and death rate reviews, nursing quality assurance program and quality grand rounds. in conclusion in 2006, AKUH acquired the gold seal of international accreditation in health care by the Joint Commission International Accreditation (JCIA) with the unique distinction of be the first hospital in Pakistan and among few universities found hospitals in the terra firma to get the quality recognition. AKUH is now on the expansion and integration phase of its quality journey, the central driving force towards its quality vision is improvement of processes and outcomes and achieving a strong customer orientation towards both external and infixed customers. This will be achieved through concentrating on the refinements and strategies of the hospital and all its depart ments to these collar study themes that is improvement in quality of care, services and cost-effectiveness. It is widely recognized that quality indicators or performance indicators can give a valuable insight into the quality of care world provided to patients.Performance indicators are best way to learn and improve, but to in muted ownership in the nerve center of every individual is the key to having meaningful indicators. Thus making performance indicators a part of a physicians and nursing performance evaluation not only ensure that they actively participate in improving their own performance, but also ensure that, quality of care provided to the patients is always and forever improving. In this clinical situation I also participated in ontogeny the policies with multidisciplinary team and tool in order to control quality system and to evaluate the compliances of practice for sustainability. Fostering a culture of base hit requires more than introducing new policies and procedures. Developing a culture of safety requires critical thinking, worry solving, risk identification management and human factor training. The relevant belles-lettres and websites on patient safety program has suggested many safety related performance indicators and systems of check and balances which can ensure patients safety during patients stay at hospital. A systematic and multidisciplinary approach is, therefore, very imperative to pick-up medical errors and uprise strategies to reduce them as it defiantly plays an important part in patient safety.Literature ReviewThe literature review will address overall concept of patient safety and its related issues and concerns, international perspective of error occurrences, safety related performance indicators and measures to create positive safety culture. several(prenominal) studies are carried out on measuring and evaluating patient safety and outcomes at several health care institutions (Baker 2003 Arah, 2004 Colla, 200 5 Karsh, 2006). According to Colla (2005) Achievement of a culture conducive to patient safety may be an admirable goal in its own right, but more effort should be expended on understanding the relationship between measures of safety climate and patient outcomes.The capital of Luxembourg Declaration on Patient base hit (2005) has observed that the health arena is a high-risk area because adverse events, arising from treatment rather than disease, can lead to death, serious damage, complications and patient suffering. Although many hospitals and healthcare settings have procedures in place to ensure patient safety, the health care sector still lags behind other industries and services that have introduced systematic safety processes. intimately fifty percent of joint commission standards are directly related to safety, addressing such issues as medication usage, infection control, surgery and anesthesia, blood transfusions reactions, staff credentialing, fire safety, medical equip ment, disaster management, risk identification and management, sentinel event monitoring, safety and security structures. These standards address a number of significant patient safety issues, including the implementation of patient safety programs the response to adverse events when they occur the prevention of accidental harm through the prospective analysis and redesigning of under fire(predicate) patient systems and its the organizations responsibility to transparent and take ownership and accountability.Agency for Health Research and Quality (AHRQ) reports (2001) has suggested the same that to review best practices from scientific literature, redesign care based on best practices through collaboration of quaternate departments, Evaluate technology solutions, Implement performance measurements and Monitor selected measurements and present compendious reports to senior leadership. Moreover, the Advisory Board Research document supports the type of error mentioned in the AHRQ 2 000 reports that the most common errors per 1,000 visits are 65 incidents per due to adverse drug events, 60 incidents due to hospital acquired infections, 51 incidents related to adjective complications and 15 incidents related to repays.Besides analyzing the common errors in terms of patient safety, Mrayyan and Huber (2003) discussed common chord aspects of patient safety issues. First is the fear that is whenever any unfortunate incident happens and it is publicized it creates fear and apprehension among team members. Second issue is errors as a system problem, which involves repetition of same type of error that requires close and immediate interventions. Third is the link between errors and inadequate resources that way inadequate number of staffs or inadequate trained staff that can jeopardize patient safety.The medical error and harm to patient safety does not only let the patient suffer but brings an impact on society at large. The Danish Society for Patient sentry go (2 005) discussed the effects that adverse events can have on patients health care individualnel and society at large are significant. Patients may suffer both physically and psychologically from sufferings created by the injury itself, but also by the way the incident is handled. Health care personnel on the other hand may experience shame, guilt and depression, with litigations and complaints imposing an superfluous burden. Society at large suffers from a lower quality of life of its members, with associated extra health care be but also costs caused by a lower productivity of the society.After root cause analysis I also felt that it is necessary to have fundamental interaction one is to one basis to relevant health care personal who did an error in order to sensitized them and mentored through education path rather than terminating the employee, give them insight that the will be the future embassador for patient safety because, I in person believe that quality resile when pers on itself willing to do so, it should be our constant commitment towards organization that patient safety should be our top priority, which infuses the entire organization, for that it is mandatory that first we should acknowledge the error then abet blame-free environment where individuals are sceptred to report errors without any fear and punishment so they can volitionally address safety concerns.Daniel (2004) explains that, what can be done to mean solar day to improve patient safety while we are waiting for evidence on effective interventions. First, we need leaders those at the top of organizational charts as well as leaders at all level, second, we need to focus on comprehensive systems of safety rather than attempting to address safety one problem at a time. Three elements comprise comprehensive patient safety active case finding, methodical analysis, and system redesign.Patient safety initiatives and programs vary from institution to institution but the aim remains the s ame that is reducing errors and promote safety. Klazinga and Arah (2004) said it is evident that current efforts focus too narrowly on the patient with little explicit linkage to wider aspects of health system safety. Risks management entails reducing harm not just to patients but also to staff, visitors and the environment including society.Some of the patient safety alternatives and solutions proposed by Mrayyan and Hubber (2003) are emphasizing on strengthening system of error reporting and discipline that is error detection and reporting system within organization to reduce medical error, patient education in all aspects of care and applying risk management skills by healthcare personnel. In addition, creating an knowledge system and edifice evidence base for patient safety, analyzing the impact of various management practices like staffing, increasing of medical errors and high risk population and monitoring error rates with necessary actions can reduce medical errors and al so use of information technology can work towards enhancing patient safety. Besides all this, commitment of the healthcare professional to reduce errors and promote safety in any organization enhances safety not only for patients but also for the healthcare staff and society in general.This position paper related to sentinel event also gives me insight to do a self-reflection of my hypothesise related competencies as a key management representative. I personally believe that, Knowledge can be achieve by exercise literature but the art of utilizing that knowledge and skills will give sureness to ful need job in an effective way. According to (Barker, Sullivian Emery 2006). describe three key roles organized in to three categories called interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. In interpersonal roles manager has lots of job responsibilities in order to full fill organizational goals, informational roles comprises of monitor and disseminator as that manager is the focal person and considered an as nerve center. Third category is decisional roles which consist of entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator. The first two categories are related to day to day operation However, the third category need that how manager use his/her strength in clear direction which meet the organization vision and mission. integrating of ModelThere are number of the clinical theories and models regarding the human error are discussed in management. Among which I have selected the Eindhoven model of incident causation.Eindhoven Model of Incident CausationThis model was originally developed to identify root causes of safety related incidents in the Netherlands and has since been tested in industrial and health care settings. The Eindhoven Model of incident causation identifies three main causes of error human operator, organizational and technical failure. These failures, alone or in combination, are through responsible for reinitiatin g a chain of events that may ultimately lead to an adverse patient outcome. In performance improvement terminology, such a failure would be considered the root cause of an incident. According to this model, high risk situations will develop into incidents if inadequate system defenses are available to remediate the problem. The Eindhoven Model of Incident Causation served as the theoretical basis for developing the Eindhoven Classification Model, which has since been adapted for the health care domain (Jacob Cherry 2011). This motley model claims that errors occur either because of active failures or latent conditions.Human Operator faulting (Active failure)Human operator errors are those made by individuals at the sharp end by health care workers. They are also referred to as active failures or active errors. Active failures fall into three major categories skill based, rule-based or knowledge-based. Skill based error occur when an individual makes an error during the performanc e of a ordinary delegate that requires little conscious effort as evidence by its routine practice of nurses to bring blood from laboratory or its routine to take daily over from upcoming shift but in different intervals but nurse fails to check for correct identification with patient name and medical record number. An example of a skill based error would be a nurse forgetting to push the start button on an IV pump after priming the tubing. A rule based error occurs when an individual fails to perform a procedure or protocol correctly or chooses the wrong procedure as in this sentinel event nurse and physician fails to compliance with policies and procedure as a result wrong blood was transfused. An example of a fuel-based error is a phlebotomist failing to check the patients identification before obtaining a blood specimen. A knowledge based error refers to the conscious but incorrect finish of existing knowledge to a new situation. An example of a knowledge-based error would b e when first patient develop fever or sign of reaction she took as an granted and stop blood for time being neither nurse or physician utilized their knowledge and corporate theory in to practice or critically analyze that what would be the possible reasons for fever. Human errors have typically been the focus of traditional incident report monitoring because they are more obvious that latent conditions. Although whatever of the factors leading to human error are amenable such as knowledge deficit, staffing shortages, work over load and so onTechnical or organizational error (Latent Condition/ Latent error)Technical and organizational errors are referred to as latent condition or latent errors. Latent conditions result from sanctions or decisions made by administrators or others in leadership positions that come to technical issues, organizational policy or the allocation of resources. These errors are called latent because of the delayed and unintended consequences that may aff ect patient safety at a later point. Technical error occurs when there are problems with equipment, forms, labels, etc. (e.g. a computer does not print out patient identification labels in a timely manner). Organizational error can be related to various, often complex issues involving management priorities and organizational culture. An Example of a latent error would be an organizational decision not to use a computerized provider order entry system which results in a high number of medication errors related to illegible handwriting.Other Error (Unclassified)A third category in the Einhoven Classification Model accounts for errors that cannot be classified as active or latent. In health care, such errors are generally due to patient-related factors that contribute to error, for instance, if patient gave the history of allergic reaction and this can lead to potential medication error. An error whose cause cannot be placed in any category (i.e. latent, active, or patient-related) is termed unclassifiable.In order to continuous quality improvement and promote patient safety culture it is necessary to promote culture of reporting of errors is the first step along with a constructive process towards understanding that what factors within a system enable an error to take place. This systems approach is gaining ground and many hospital administrators are becoming well versed in its theory and practice. To promote a culture of safety the leadership of an organization promulgates an atmosphere in which the reporting of errors is welcomed, so that others may benefit from knowledge of the situation and can develop strategies based on the data. A major element of this framework is a non-punitive stance towards the individual who reports or who has involved in an incident. In a just culture an organization lets its employee know that they will not be disciplined for making mistakes and that the leaders value the importance of learning from mishaps and seek to improve the system that allowed them to occur.RecommendationBased on sentinel event which I address in my position paper and in light of literature, I would like to recommend few suggestions/ recommendations to strengthen our quality system. First in order to promote in healthcare organization, major emphasis required in order to create non-punitive environment where health care workers can report events, errors and near misses without fear of reprisal or disciplinary action. Next, the risk management forum should be structured at organizational level where relevant multidisciplinary key stake holders should identified in order to take ownership and facilitate clinicians and organizational managers at all levels, the in order to create such an atmosphere which promotes patient safety culture in an organizations. Needs to develop and implement a reporting system that encourages and enhances reporting by all department and staff. Educate all clinicians, staff, and management personnel on the natu re and importance of the event reporting process, including divine revelation and discovery issue. Needs to do timely and accurate documentation of sentinel events help organizations improve their safety and quality of care and learn from other organizations unexpected outcomes, which allow other health care organizations to be aware of the possibility of certain sentinel events, thus giving staff the time and knowledge to develop strategies to avoid these events before they actually occur. Utilization of event report data to trend and analyzes organizational risks and distributes this information to appropriate staff of the organization so that risk-prevention measures can be developed and implemented. Last but not least provide clinicians and staff ongoing feedback on their risk-reduction efforts, results of event reporting should be discussed at the departmental level, and input on tonic actions/process improvements should be solicited.ConclusionIn conclusion, I must say that er rors can occur at any point in the health care delivery system. Acknowledging that errors, learning from those errors, and working to prevent future errors represents a major change in the culture of health care, a simulacrum shift from blame and punishment to analysis of the root causes of errors and strategies to improve systems and processes by implementing patient safety measures which provide an objective, validated measure for identifying Potential Safety Issues.Management should make an effort to break down barriers by adopting non-punitive cultures based on industry best practices. This will sheds new light on traditional methods for removing reporting barriers, develop employee commitment to recognize and report errors or incident occurrences. When the staff proactively participates in reporting, the reporting process becomes a vehicle for making practices improvements in the delivery of patient health care and management receives information that otherwise would not be a vailable. As one manager said, if nobody reports it, you dont know. When some occurrences are not reported, management receives limited information on which to base their decision. It goes without saying that amend data mean better decisions.According to Daniel (2004) the goal should be not only to increase the number and quality of reports but also to increase their usefulness as liberal sources of information for the generation of strategies tactics aimed toward medical-error reduction (p. 27). According to Minesota Alliance for Patient Safety (2005) safety culture is not blame-free approach it is an approach that balances the need to promote open reporting and the need to hold practitioners accountable for their behavioral choices. Hospitals should identify potential safety issues, having proactive approach, measure baseline performance, and set priorities for process improvement efforts. Using this methodology, hospitals can implement patient safety program with minimal inve stment on their part. Informational reports can be generated and disseminated to proactively identify safety issues and drive improvements for the better health care outcomes.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
RestraintRestraint is a major cerebration in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness. Restraint constantly influences the decisions people make. Kurtzs lack of restraint kills him, while Marlows restraint saves and prevents him from becoming exchangeable Kurtz. Kurtz is a worldly concern who kicks himself loose of the earth (Conrad, 61). He does not beat allegiance to anyone except to himself. Kurtzs absence of restraint exists because he holds a lusty power in an un-civilized country. Restraint is arrogateed by ternary factors power, lust, and his surroundings. Kurtzs display of restraint is a prime example that exemplifies the affect of these three factors on restraint.Kurtz was not always the power hungry man portrayed in Conrads book. According to his Intended, Kurtz was an admired man who had a generous heart and a noble mind (Conrad, 70). However, after his expeditiousness into Africa, he became a changed man an insoluble problem (Conrad, 50). The new Kurtz kicks the very ear th to pieces (Conrad, 61). Let us say nerves, go wrong, and causes him to preside at plastered midnight dances ending with unspeakable rites (Conrad, 45). He has dropped all sense and morality and continues to confront on according to his various lusts.Kurtz originally goes to Africa in order to shed light on a living by collecting tusk. His massive compilation of ivory exceeds those of the other men put together. Although the areas...
Multiple Intelligences Thought prohibited(a) our lives, we are faced with many incompatible skill experiences. Some of these experiences postulate made a better impact than others. This tramp be attri provideded to everyones divergent three-fold intelligences or acquirement modalitys. A persons dealing style is the method though which they gain information slightly their environment. As a teacher, it is our responsibility to know these styles, so we can throw each of our students and habit all of the necessary methods. Howard Gardner, a professor at Harvard, introduced his theory of multiple intelligences in 1983. Multiple intelligences is a theory about the brain that says human beings are born with single intelligence that cannot be changed, and is measur suitable by a psychologist. Gardner believes that there are eight different intelligences in humans. The eight are verbal linguistic, visual spatial, bodily kinesthetic, numeric logic, musical, intrapersonal, interp ersonal, and naturalist. Understanding these intelligences will economic aid us to use our classroom and curriculum in a way that will call down to all of our students. We might also be able to curve see to it problems by reaching a student in a different way. One that will make more(prenominal) sense to them and more enjoyable. We can include all of the intelligences in lessons to accommodate all of the students different breeding styles at once. By reaching each students intelligence we can go into that a student will perform better which, could mean students retaining more important information. A students learning style can also back up lead them into a more appropriate career direction. As a teacher you can also learn your own personal learning style or intelligence to help improve the way you learn and teach. Gardners first intelligence is verbal-linguistics. A linguistic learner thinks in quarrel. This person uses language to express and understand meaning. These lea rners pay attention to words and often express themselves through writing. Verbal linguists are skilled readers and speaking I one of their near important strengths. The traditional curriculum commonly appeals best to this type of learners. Art is an area were verbal linguist pass by because they are able to express their ideas on paper. The students who learn best visually are visual spatial learners. These students usually sit towards the front of a classroom. We rely ... ...are the observers. They enjoy field trips and activities that involve nature, such as sucking louse or leaf collections. Home economic activities may also be good for the naturalist. in that respect are several ways in which a teacher can accommodate every learning style by doing simple things in the classroom. Examples of this would be a certain seating battle array or even just changing all the time to reach each students style. Knowing and learning styles might be one of the most important things to learn from your students at the beginning of each school year. There are several tests out there that can help with this, but know each style is also important. Knowing your own learning intelligence as a teacher will also help you and is important. This allows you to know in which way you will best be able to absorb information that is important in our teaching. Multiple intelligences are a vital part of any teachers lesson plans and are especially necessary in the ever-changing diversities of the schools. Learning styles will bring out the strengths and weaknesses. Works CitedGardner, Howard. Frames of Mind. New York Basic Books, 1988 Santrock, John. Child Development. McGraw-Hill, 1998
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Justin Kim1C-2Oedipus the Perfect example of Freudian psychologyIn Oedipus the King by Sophocles, Oedipus, the king of Thebes finds expose that he kills his pay off and that his wife is his female parent. Oedipus is very concerned for his kingdom and his people. He wants to drive the decadence from the acres (Sophocles 109) by finding Laiuss murderer and killing him. through and through his curiosity, Oedipus finds come forth that the man he kills long past is Laius, who is his father, and that his wife is his mother any in accordance with Oedipus prophecy. After approach on this credit as well, Jocasta, Oedipus wife, commits suicide, and Oedipus gouges out his eyes as a result of this. In his search for the murderer, Oedipus strives to be a fair king. Ironically, he often is non fair to the people he sees or things that ar essential to him. This repair demonstrates the ascendent of evaluator done Oedipus denial of judge in terzetto situationsOedipus meetin g with Tiresias, Oedipus gouging out of his eyes, and Creons asking of Oedipus to steady down fairly The theme of legal expert is evident during Oedipus meeting with Tiresias. Oedipus brings over Tiresias, the nonable prophet to signalise him who the Laius murderer is. Tiresias, at first, tries to hide the answer, but through Oedipus pressing, Tiresias is strained to come across that Oedipus kills Laius a long time ago and is the line of descent of the corruption of the land (178). Oedipus, enraged at the answer, tells Tiresias that he should be dishonored for cooking up such a story and asks Tiresias who told him to do this. Tiresias responds, You did, you forced me, twisted it out of me (179). The most rudimentary definition of justice is fairness, and cover song in quaint Greece prophets words were reg... ...ied manoeuver that Oedipus surmise is nothing more(prenominal) than a cypher that is unable to be proven true, which conclusively proves Oedipus is not just to Creon because all the accusations against Creon are completely false.In conclusion, Oedipus denial of justice especially to his eyes, Tiresias, and Creon, show that justice is an important theme in this book. Oedipus denies justice by not giving the full representation of the truth, and by cause to be perceived and blaming others for things he himself has done. By doing this, he fails to be the fair king he strives to be by trying to track down Laius murderer, and becomes the complete antithesis of what he wants to be. If Oedipus wants to be a just king to his people, then he should top the punishment meant for him finishbecause it is fair that since he is the source of the corruption of the land, that he should die in return. Essay -- Justin Kim1C-2Oedipus the Perfect Example of Freudian PsychologyIn Oedipus the King by Sophocles, Oedipus, the king of Thebes finds out that he kills his father and that his wife is his mother. Oedipus is very concern ed for his kingdom and his people. He wants to drive the corruption from the land (Sophocles 109) by finding Laiuss murderer and killing him. Through his curiosity, Oedipus finds out that the man he kills long ago is Laius, who is his father, and that his wife is his motherall in accordance with Oedipus prophecy. After coming on this realization as well, Jocasta, Oedipus wife, commits suicide, and Oedipus gouges out his eyes as a result of this. In his search for the murderer, Oedipus strives to be a fair king. Ironically, he often is not fair to the people he sees or things that are essential to him. This play demonstrates the theme of justice through Oedipus denial of justice in three situationsOedipus meeting with Tiresias, Oedipus gouging out of his eyes, and Creons asking of Oedipus to adjudicate fairly The theme of justice is evident during Oedipus meeting with Tiresias. Oedipus brings over Tiresias, the renowned prophet to tell him who the Laius murderer is. Tiresia s, at first, tries to hide the answer, but through Oedipus pressing, Tiresias is forced to reveal that Oedipus kills Laius a long time ago and is the source of the corruption of the land (178). Oedipus, enraged at the answer, tells Tiresias that he should be ashamed for cooking up such a story and asks Tiresias who told him to do this. Tiresias responds, You did, you forced me, twisted it out of me (179). The most rudimentary definition of justice is fairness, and back in Ancient Greece prophets words were reg... ...ied show that Oedipus surmise is nothing more than a guess that is unable to be proven true, which conclusively proves Oedipus is not just to Creon because all the accusations against Creon are completely false.In conclusion, Oedipus denial of justice especially to his eyes, Tiresias, and Creon, show that justice is an important theme in this book. Oedipus denies justice by not giving the full representation of the truth, and by hurting and blaming others for thing s he himself has done. By doing this, he fails to be the fair king he strives to be by trying to track down Laius murderer, and becomes the complete antithesis of what he wants to be. If Oedipus wants to be a just king to his people, then he should take the punishment meant for himdeathbecause it is fair that since he is the source of the corruption of the land, that he should die in return.