Thursday, February 28, 2019
Running head overthrow rate Problem Green Mountain Resort (Dis)solves the Turnover Problem macrocosm The beautiful Green Mountain Resort was a doomed barter from the beginning. As the developer failed, the investment bank took it over to fix it up and sell it to at least get their m maveny from it. However, they fell in complete with it and made the decision to create a first class operation. The handler and part owner Gunter had a vision of the first class stamping ground. The one thing that was halting this vision was the line he faced with turnover.The resort was located in the poorest area of the state. That organism said, it is hard to honor and hold the line good help when there is little to choose from. When he did find some great help they quickly moved on for violate opportunities, because he just did not generate much more than entryway level positions being a small business. So the paradox he faces is what the turnover creates. Gunter cannot expect to provid e outstanding service as he seems to be constantly in training mode.The great employees that he wants to have on staff end up leaving for more opportunity. contingency Questions potpourri Images used by individually Gunters change two-baser was that of a handler. The image or reputation of Green Mountain became that of being an excellent place to obtain training to advance ones career. Gunter mentors those that provide outstanding service and helps them to become even better. The cordial reception publicationss change image was that of the navigator.It described the turnover as a chronic problem and that something needed to be done to stop the turnover or the resort would fail. The consultants change image was that of the interpreter. He helped Gunter to see the turnover issue as a possible substantiative instead of a negative. Now the resort attracts and helps develop further highly motivated people which is a win win for both Gunter and the recruits. Assumptions and prescr iptions from each Each of the assumptions influenced the prescriptions for dealing with the turnover problem.Gunter started out as a nurturer and he looked at the turnover as a problem and tried several(prenominal) things to help stop it, precisely nothing he did worked. When he became the coach and started mentoring he drawed the problem oppositely and now he was known for jumpstarting careers. The hospitality literature was the navigator and saw the turnover as a problem that needed to be solved. Some ways to do that were to streamline training, change the job and dont depend on any employees. there was a way to fix it and it was to make things easier.The consultant was the interpreter, a different view of the problem. How can the turnover be an asset, he helped Gunter to find the verificatory side of a problem. if we only draw upon one particular soma The conclusions we draw from the statement if we only draw upon one particular frame, consequently this will take us away from thinking about what is issue on from an alternative perspective are if we only a view a problem from one angle, another could be there but our minds are closed to any new possibilities.If we view a problem from different angles, like Gunter did after the consultant brought it up, then there whitethorn be alternatives to a problem and that problem could become an asset. References Palmer, I, Dunford, R. , & Akin, G. (2009). Managing Organizational Change A Multiple Prospective Approach. New York, NY The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. /Irwin.
Luxor Cosmetics shimmy Luxor Cosmetics is in a difficult situation in which changes need to be made. There a few items that need immediate attention. Per an evaluation of the sexual conquest balance reduces, their inventory only increases every grade, for example Lipsticks inventory increase is about 20% per stratum Nail refine increase is about 20% per stratum, leveling out at $11 million in 2009 -2010.Their Creams inventory remains constant, since the creams food market is a totally different concept, it does not follow a trend in innovation and changes so often as the other products. The unnecessary in inventory is a big disadvantage since last years products may not be in style this year in addition to the cost of storage. For all these reasons their cash flow is less(prenominal) in comparison with previous years causing that Luxor Cosmetics keeps increasing their debate loans, creating more debt, making it harder to pay out as 2011.Some of the strategies I believe th at may help improve Luxor Cosmetics shrinking market are For example, improving their marketing strategies, by being more aggressive in their creams campaign, targeting the different potential customers and not limiting to the sometime(a)er ones only, provided to include women from 20 years old. They also should take advantage of the concomitant that according to market research, during the last decade nail polish gross revenue is significantly larger that lipstick.Considering this information Luxor Cosmetics can increase their sales by promoting red-hot colors that change with the season, there is a large kind of shades, textures, colors and other trendy characteristics that can be promoted. Other measurable changes or strategies that should be considered by Luxor Cosmetics is to try to get rid of the old merchandise by creating an online discount web page, in which last years products can be sold at a light price targeting different costumers with different needs and incom es.This way their inventory would mitigate and their cash flow would increase. Also they should base their production in omen analysis of demand, this way, they wouldnt have so much inventory left(a) from previous seasons. As a conclusion I can declare that Luxor Cosmetics is on time to make the necessary changes to bring their business grit to life. Innovation is the word that should be included in every new product and every advertizing campaign, they should develop new lines and new products, perchance even different packaging to impress their customers.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
The tarradiddle of racialism traces its roots back to the times when come up mask rattling mattered. A few centuries ago it was the main criteria according to which mickle were oblige to judge each other. The skin color was determining their social status, life story style and the military position of the surrounding troupe. Also, it used to be an unwritten law during elections, meditate interviews, etc., to discriminate the nastys, which caused a full-scale limitation of their rights. In fact, in forward-looking society nothing has dramatic al unmatched and only(a)y diversifyd in the perception of the racial diversity. The provided change that has come into being is the difference between white and gloomy shameful slew.It has been noticed that people with slatternly change of skin make up more privileges than those who nooky be described as the African Americans or the Blacks. This phenomenon is called colorism (however, for whatever basis Websters Dictiona ry doesnt indicate this term) and denotes a type of racial discrimination towards the dark-skinned while their close counterparts the light-skinned people atomic number 18 treated more respectably at all levels of social system in the USA and other countries.It can be explained by the fact that although there exists a considerable variety of anti-racist movements, people unconsciously refer to the old stereotype that white skin is an high-fl suffer color for a human creature (to trounceher with blue eyes, blond tomentum cerebri and thinness) and is taken as success. Consequently, the rest has to either change their color as Michael Jackson did or reconcile themselves to the circumstances of reality. Note, that colorism is not only associated with the blacks.Unfortunately, this theory as well concerns communities that differ from the white race. Therefore, the Japanese, the Chinese, the Arab, the Native American people argon also to be blamed. Desire to match the ensample push es them to absurd Arabs resort to the help of the surgeon who will refine their trespass shape, Japanese do the same in order to change the color and shape of their eyes, etc. People from all over the world accommodate established all kinds of organizations, clubs, and associations, where they assemble to discuss urgent problems of the blacks to protect their rights and pop off towards the improvement of the their life standards.Among the indicated above groups its possible to distinguish some Black organizations such as The Blue Vein Society where the black person should deal his blue veins clearly seen from under the skin in order to get a membership. Another association would not chuck up the sponge the black participate in its activity unless his skin hue is no darker than a brown paper bag. Therefore, individuals with lighter tone of the skin atomic number 18 considered to be closer to the white race and are treated accordingly.The cut off of the skin tone has been vivi dly discussed in mass media but unsurprisingly teeming has never puzzle a subject of hot debate among the fallatorities. In 1920s a well-known American black female author Nella Larson decided to write a record maintain, which would kodak the influence of the color tone of the blacks on their relationships among each other as well as social attitude and life opportunities in general. The book Passing was published in 1929 and accepted favorable reviews from the volume of readers.During the Harlem Renaissance era staring at the goal of WWI and lasting till 1930s, those having the light hue of the skin abide considered themselves nigh white easily getting their privileges. As for the blacks, they flip come to the imply where the society forced them to hate themselves for their skin color. Thus, the main problem of the book seen from various angles is colorism.It would be wrong to consider colorism less essential than racism as, in fact, it is even more dangerous as it prov okes tension indoors the black communities who ought to preserve their identity forcing people with darker skin to feel as if they were less valuable, unimportant human beings having minimum rights and benefits. The recognition of the notion of colorism assists us in dividing the negative phenomenon of racism into several separate problems that therefore can be much easier to solve.The book Passing depicts the story of two women Irene Redfield and Clare Kendry who have not been in touch for a long time, but reunited already having husbands, children and their own lifestyles. Both of them are light-skinned black females, but Clare was the one who has been passing as a white woman during all of her life in spite of the fact that her husband was a violent opposer of the blacks.Through the whole book one can observe a debatable notion whether it is worthwhile having a light tone of a skin to identify oneself as the black and to refuse from the advantage an American white citizen recei ves on regular basis or to perceive oneself as a white person and to try to penetrate into the white society with all its opportunities and equal rights leaving behind black culture and identity. Irene opposes the stove of abandoning her black roots and subconsciously takes pride in her origin. Being strongly attracted to Clare, she, however, disapproves her behavior in terms of endeavoring to reach the white upper crust.interestingly enough, Irenes character doesnt have a strong fillip in life. Her existence amounts to nothing more than her family and setting up kind-heartedness activities for the local cream of the crop. She assumes that her light skin allows her to look down on her dark-skinned companions. This can be clearly observed in the negotiation between her and Clare after the latter has spent some time chatter with two Irenes black servants Zulena and Sadie leaving behind general opinion. (Larsen 79). With an subterranean motive, Larsen chooses to place two black women in the role of servants in particular. It is thorny for Irene to overcome the stereotype of the racial diversity and to lower herself to the level of black low-income servants who nevertheless along with their mistress belong to the same group of the blacks.Nella Larsen in her book Passing brings up the gender issue among those willing to parry from their black roots and become one of the whites. This is vividly described at the beginning of the book while women are having a talk approximately Clares recall dose Claude Jones who used to be the black but has passed and saturnine into a Jew. The persuasion of his break-in doesnt arouse a kick or indignation among the young ladies moreover, they consider Claudes abandonment of his origin a weakness that can easily be forgiven and forgotten Oh, hes a scream all right Still, its his own employment (Larsen 37).At the same time, women are looked at as traitors seek to cross cultural and skin color lines. Applying theory in p ractice, image makers unnoticeably turn the audience away from the dark-skinned by putting an image of a black male, not on any estimate a black woman, into the movie and making him fall in pick out with a white girl or in very rarefied instances a mulatto girl who in future will give a birth to less darker generation.Larsen also emphasize the role of man by describing Clares husband lav Bellew who was an ardent racist and an enemy of the blacks. John Bellew becomes a personification of racism, not mentioning colorism, and places his convictions higher than his love for Clare. His belief in Clares real origin start growing very steady revealing the truth of the racial issue of his wife as the book goes on. Irene finds herself under the tension of two Clare and John who keep constraining her to pass. Who knows what would elapse if John had time to talk to Clare before her death? Divorce? soul-searching?In any case, nothing has higher price than life, particularly the hue of t he skin. But Clare suspects that there is only the slight chance that her husband would change his attitude towards the blacks. Throughout the book Clare is a devoted follower of the idea of passing as she oftentimes describes the positive sides of the world she is living in to Irene. However, later on she starts complaining about the awfulness of her state and tells her friend that ultimately she would be happier and safer than herself.Unfortunately, the problem of skin tone differentiation remains of current importance even nowadays, in spite of all the expert advances and scientific progress, which seemingly have to contribute to the development of moral values. Basically, the reason lies in the human nature, which cannot be in any way modified or suppressed for a long time. According the study of the PhD schoolchild Mr. Michael Harrison, the issue of colorism has a great impact on a business sphere.He claims, for instance, that when two black people with equal experience, ta lents and personal characteristics are applying for a job, the one who is the light-skinned black individual will roughly interchangeablely occupy the desired position, no matter how sad it is. the great unwashed of people are making a statement regarding being not implicated in racism, but whenever a conversation deals with colorism and the topic of light-skinned and dark-skinned black individuals reaches the boiling point they shade.Together with mass media representatives they are playing a strategic game where they refer to such celebrities like Mariah Carey, Van Diesel, and Halle Berry as the black, purposefull leaving the fact that these renowned figures are light-skinned black people without consideration. This policy shapes the worldview of how the black person must look like and creates an image of exotic appearance of the light-skinned individuals. This results in a new different approach toward those people whose skin is of ebony color.Obviously enough, they are to t he highest degree likely not to get a proper education, descent job and all those regular creature comforts of life taken for granted by white citizens. Experts say, that in mediocre 70% of dark-skinned black African Americans tend to have humble jobs more often than their light-skinned partners as the last ones make 30% of lower-paid salaried workers. Overall, social opinion served through media has become so sizeable and influential lately, that its hard to think about the future.Try, for example, to imagine a light or a dark-skinned angel from the top to the bottom, his causa expression, hairstyle, clothing, etc. At best, you will get an image of the Angel of Death. Or an Assistant Professor of Sociology at Morehouse College Larry D. Crawford in his study (1997) asks the audience whether they have ever thought why does the general complexion become darker and darker when you prompt from upper to middle to lower class African communities?Why is it that most homeless person m en are dark complexioned? Why do we become affectively shocked or disturbed at the sight of a light complexioned homeless man? Why does the former seem more ingrained and the latter utterly out of place? Why is it that most homeless women are also dark complexioned? He also refers to the fact that the majority of slaves were dark-skinned black people as the argument of a great difference between the latter and those who had light tone of skin.Is it possible to fully realize an enormous size of the problem of skin color? Would it be better if our mankind was created color-blind? Is there any excuse why individuals with white skin color making 10% of worlds population rule the world and establish priorities for others? Is it possible to explain this phenomenon to our grandchildren? Who is the one to stop the on-going mutual misunderstanding reflected in so many generations of the whites and the blacks, both with light and dark hue of skin?It goes without saying that during a human b ody of the years the issue of racism and colorism has been relevant globally and constantly. History should have taught us a good lesson about the consequences of human distorted sympathy of skin hues through worldwide slavery, Civil War and numerous undiscovered historical events.REFERENCES 1. Larsen, N. Passing. New York Penguin, 1997.2. Crawford, D. Larry. Racism, Colorism and Power. National Black United Front. 19 October 2006
Lucozade is a product which over the years has totally changed the calculate audience and its impact on the market. At the start of its production look it was marketed as a intoxication which helped aid recovery for sick children, so the obvious derriere market was mothers who would be encouraged by the technical to buy the make happy for their children. However, as clipping went by this proved unfortunate. It was time for change and this they did, changing not wholly image but target market and the different uses for the drink.The first advertisement studied was an original commercial which advertised Lucozade as a drink which aids recovery from nausea aimed to be bought by mothers, and promoted very much as a gifted family drink. However, the slogan Lucozade Aids Recovery made consumers think it was a drink only for the sick and not intended for healthy people because of improving complaisant conditions and medical care, fewer people felt the need to buy Lucozade when th ey were ill, cause as obvious decrease in sales. some other problem was the encase it was a unique large glass feeding bottle, but was only commensurate for use in the home. Consumers who felt thirsty were unlikely to buy it and drink it on the street, which meant that the brand was only sold in large grocery stores and chemist so limiting its availability and reducing its market share. The drink itself was also a problem as it was then only provided in one flavour and consumers could take it or leave it, so more simply did not like the taste and bought other soft drinks.A positive side to this advertising, however, was that everybody had heard of Lucozade and it had an clear reputation, strongly associated with glucose and health. It was sold at a graduate(prenominal) price compared to production cost which meant that Lucozade made ugly profit on each bottle sold. There was also no direct competition, not even from supermarkets, who often market their own brand versions o f victorful products.The Daley Thompson advertisements were the cure and saviour of the Lucozade drink in using a top sports sensation to endorse and advertise the product. Thompson was a double Olympic gold attractive decathlete in the 1980s, and so was a world re nowadaysned sports star and he was BritishA totally new advertising weight-lift was now launched to give Lucozade a new image and enhance its reputation in a redbrick was that consumers would feel was relevant to them. The image of the children and sickrooms was gone and in came representations of fitness and healthy living, so completely transforming the total target market, as it now promised energy for healthy athletes, not for convalescent children. In access there would be announcements of new products for example providing new flavours that would give Lucozade a much wider appeal through and through its advertising. Also the first part of the campaign introduced the single-drink, quarter litre bottle. Sales im proved hammyally and the newer, smaller bottle was sold in small shops as well as chemists, so widening its availability.The Daley Thompson advertisement starts with an uttermost(prenominal) close-up of a red traffic roost which draws attention immediately to the screen, as it then switches to a catch of Daley Thompson fall subjugate from a run, while it states 8AM Daley Thompson, stops training for a refreshment. Another picture of a red light cross fades to a shot of Daley coming to a standstill when Daley stops, the viewers stop to focus a shimmering heat on the running track, which is red, the corporate colour of Lucozade. The effect of this dramatic opening is to show the viewer Thompsons total exhaustion, whilst the red colours inspire us of the product label.It also has an American style with the traffic lights and intemperate heat so suggesting what an international superstar Daley Thompson is. It also indicates that if he trains in America, he must be popular whilst it is a country associated with success as is Thompson, and, by implication, LucozadeThe traffic lights turn amber as it goes to a shot of Daley the clothes he is wearing are grey and soggy emphasising that he is exhausted from a long training session. He is depicted with a bottle of Lucozade, flipping it out of out of his bag to show it is takeout and will fit into a bag which can be interpreted anywhere. He drinks it am extreme close-up follows of the vivid orange Lucozade liquid and bubbles fleeting through it like the energy building up. There is also an extreme close-up of the bottle with a Royal Seal of Approval indicating that is a high quality product, which is good enough to be royally approved, to remind viewers of the tradition and reputation.The music speeds up and the camera moves in and goes to an extreme close-up of a green light, zooms in and out quickly and moves to a mid-shot of Daley getting erect to sprint this is in slow-motion which indicates the energy building up and rushing through his body from the tip of his toes to the top of his head. He burst from the block and races down the track towards the camera and audience to fully involve them, stressing how quick he is and it is implied that the Lucozade has fully revitalised him. There is then a variety of shots of his legs quid down the runway, making the advertisement more explosive and exciting so retaining audience involvement. The shots change quickly to reflect the speed of Lucozade, but it ends with a freeze frame of Daley in motion winning his race. The words Lucozade and the delicious glucose drink appear in the Lucozade font whilst the voice of Des Lynam is heard saying these words, word picture more celebrity endorsement which gives Lucozade an even better image having been endorsed by two famous sport personalities.Sound is also used to excellent effect in the advertisement as the music is of a heavy metal style, which was popular with teenagers at the time, the ba nd being Iron inaugural with their song Phantom of the Opera, complementing the images perfectly. The music gives the advertisement a racy and modern edge whilst also appealing to a younger audience than the mothers of the elder advertisements.Therefore, the advertisement was constructed extremely well and this was reflected in a huge increment in sales, mainly because of the Daley Thompson endorsement. It helped Lucozade become what it is today, a well known and prise top sports drinks used by the worlds best professional and amateur athletes aswell as ordinary people on the street who have been convinced by a series of very powerful advertisements.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
In the book Across Five Aprils, by Irene Hunt, is set in the 1800s during the civil state of war among the Union, the northern parts of America, and the confederation, the southern parts of America. The accounting sets off on a farm in southern Illinois, where Jethro and his mother, Ellen Creighton, live with his 8 siblings. As the war escalates, Jethros older brothers and his teacher go to help the war effort. close to of his brothers join the Union but Bill, his favorite brother, goes to join the Confederation.As the story progresses each of the brothers s hold on mails to the family describing how to warfront is doing, which was contrary to how the newspapers defined the warfront. After every triumph and every loss, the public opinion about the war and the Generals change from the slightest maculation of news they hear. In the early stages of the war, Ulysses S. portion early victories for the Union at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. The family celebrates the victory, knowin g nothing of how terrible the battles really were.After General Grants victories, people start to dubiety and compare General McClellan, who was once featured in the newspaper in the north as being a Brilliant General. Later on in the war, the Union forces suffer great losses and General Grant is harshly criticized by the press, who is later praised by the press and the people after the Battle of Gettysburg. This shows how easily influenced people are. They harshly criticize or excessively glorify after every battle and change their opinions about the Generals.Jethro shows his suspiciousness to the press and other peoples opinions when he is asked if he is way out against General Grant. He replies by saying No, I aint. Things went against him-(Ch6 pg. 100). As the war is raging throughout the land, Jethros family receives letters from his brothers. In those letters they describe the terrors of war but try to moderate how much they put in the letter to not make the family worry. J ethro watches as people are overjoyed by the victories and angry about losses.Jethro realizes that there is great contrast between the victories described by his brothers and the victories described in the newspapers. At the near end of the war, Jethro watches as the same people who criticized grant and the Union, cheer and say that I told you so old Unconditional Surrender Grant is the man who impart win the war. (Ch10 pg. 168). This demonstrates how easily people are swayed and how easily they are fitting change their opinions.
organize and execute a DCF military rank of all the MW reserves using APV. How some(prenominal) are the reserves worth? Is your estimate more likely to be unilateral high or low? What are the sources of bias? resolvent The DCF valuation of all the MW reserves using APV Indicates that the net worth of the portfolio is more or less $516. 30 million. The estimate Is more likely to be biased on the high side. The data for the projections was collected by Morgan Stanley and Amoco. Thus, the probable un developed and assertable reserves estimated may be different from the ctual reserves.Amoco can get higher valuation by projecting higher reserves. Also, Amoco and Morgan Stanley projected that the price of a oil barrel will continue to rise for the next 15 years from the current price of S 20. 4 per barrel to S 443 per barrel. This increasing value of per barrel can significantly increase the valuation of the oil fields. COSTS The costs In the projections were estimated based on the diachronic costs and cash overhead savings that Amoco expected to save from the sales event of MW petroleum. However, Apache had very low costs and was an efficient operator of properties.Also, since the MW fields were ope treadd by Amoco this would result In more potential savings to Apache. likely to biased on the higher side. The DCF valuation using APV is shown in the next page. reside tax shields faux coupon on debt 12. 32% Assumed sign debt 182. 7 Year 1 interest 22. 5 Tax rate 36% Year 1 tax shield 8. 1 Assumed cost of debt 12. 00% Growth rate -4. 06% Value of tax shield (perpetuity) 50. 4 Value of Additional assets 25. 0 Total value of MW 516. 3 2. How would you complex body part an analysis of MW as a portfolio of assets-in-place and options?Specifically, which parts of the business should be regarded as assets-in- place and which as options? The whole portfolio of MW consists of 5 parts i. Proved developed reserves it. Proved budding reserves iii. Probable reserves v. come-at-able reserves v. Other opportunities options as capital expenditures are associated with proved undeveloped reserves, probable reserves and possible reserves, and the company can choose whether to reap these expenditures basing on the then prevailing prices of oil and natural gas.
Monday, February 25, 2019
regrets of the pansy conglomerate The history of the poove imperium in the nineteenth century is one of increasing internal impuissance and deterioration. Once a super power, the pouf pudding stone fell be own of a combination of internal degeneration and external pressures. Loss of scotch living endinged as Europe went to Africa for trade and relied on the Americas rather than the comfort middleman. industrialise Europe soon surpassed outdated Ottoman traditions. Poor leadership gave agency to loss of centralized view as, and ultimately, its collapse.Ottoman descend occurred due to economic difficulties, armed forces issues, and destruction of political structure (corruption in g everyplacenment). One of the main causes of the decline of the Ottoman Empire was the decline in losses due to trade, along with many another(prenominal) stifling economic issues. At one point, the Ottoman Empire was the union of trade, due to its location. As technology advanced, and exp lorers notice new parts of the humanity, the Ottoman Empire became less of an influence in trade.This trend started as primal as the 1580s, when Omer Talib, an Ottoman geographer, warned the Sultan of the threat. He said, Now the Europeans stick out learnt to have sex the whole world they send their ships everywhere and seize important ports. at a time the goods. used to come to Suez and were distributed by Muslims to the entire world. But now these goods be carried on Portuguese, Dutch, and English shipsthe Ottomans must seize the shores of Yemen and the passing trade otherwise Europeans will Rule (Bernard Lewis, The Emergence of Modern Turkey, page 28).Exactly as predicted, the world trade, which used to flow through the Ottoman Empire, decreased sharply in the 17th Century. The Europeans traded directly with Asia leaving the Ottomans in the middle. The Dutch and British in all closed the old international trade routes through the Middle East. The want of trade was not th e only economic issue that brought the decline of the Ottoman influence. Inflation played a huge role in the destabilization of central Ottoman powers, along causing unrest among the population.The Ottomans had a bills based monetary system and with the newfound metals from the Americas, it caused the sudden flow of twopenny-halfpenny and plentiful silver, which had a catastrophic fiscal impact. The price of silver fell, speech an imbalance of trade between the East and West. horizontaltually, guilds were unable to provide lineament goods at prices low enough to compete with the cheap European manufacture goods that entered the empire without restriction due to trade agreements. This continued inflation caused prices to quadruplex and the devaluation of the coin.Adding to that, much of the states revenue was stuck to the hands of the local elites which shows how decentralized the system had become. Although economic issues affected the Ottoman Empire greatly, they werent the o nly cause for the decline of the empire. The Ottoman Empire was known as one of the most(prenominal) the right way empires, but as technology advanced, their influence of power decreased. The Ottoman Empire witnessed substantial loss in their soldiery power, as a result of the Janissaries diminishing loyalty, which was the essence of the military.These janissaries were a lavishlyly regarded military group. Although they represented and defended the Ottoman Empire, they were not of Ottoman decent, but Europeans who were trained to be loyal to the Empire. The janissaries were by and large boys between the ages of 8 to 16 who came from European and Christian rural families, who had been interpreted to Istanbul, the capital of the empire, where they were converted to Islam. They were the glue which kept the military system together, and which do it so strong.However, starting in the mid 1600s, the Janissaries began to slowly divide amongst themselves, which caused the military sys tem to slowly weaken. They began dividing old versus young, and reformers versus anti-reformers. The Sultans who were trying to implement reforms lost control over the Janissaries who resisted these changes because they would have meant a loss or decrease in many of their privileges. After numerous revolts, realizing that there was no chance in correcting the situation, the Sultans abolished Janissaries in 1826.This caused extreme military weakness within the Empire, and essentially caused the military system to fall in disarray and chaos. This weakening of their military make it an ideal environment for external military conflicts, allowing European powers to take over parts of the Ottoman Empire. Much of the Ottoman military demise fag be blamed on the corrupt administration within the Empire. The Sultans had discovered a quick and easy way of making money by merchandising jobs such as tax collectors positions to the highest bidder.Government officials known as Viziers were appo intive through manipulation and palace favors, as opposed to the honest beingness promoted up the administrative ladder through experience and ability. These viziers were responsible for the metropolis and the affairs of the province they governed. They problem with giving someone a high position based on how much they paid is that they did not have the skills or experience to properly perform the Job. Learning from the Sultan, this trend of officials selling their position spread throughout the empire.These corrupt and unqualified officials would use their means to squeeze more taxes from the populace. The taxes that were collected hardly went back to the state. In most cases, these viziers would just bound the revenue for themselves. The corruption started at the highest level, and worked its way crop up the administrative system, weakening and disrupting the Government, which caused the entire Empire to feel the consequences. The Ottoman Empire was at one point on of the vast est empires in history. Unable to keep up with the advancing global market, it became less of an influential trading region.Along with an explosive economy and a high inflation on their currency, they suffered from collapse of their military. Even if the Janissaries had not revolted, and actually accepted moves toward advancing the Empires military, the industrial revolution and the excite in global trade would have starved the empire from the financial means to survive. Political corruption was a less direct cause of decline, as it took many years for the entire system to become flaw by it, however, the combination of all 3 factors brought the demise of the Ottoman EmpireWorks Cited autobiography of the Ottoman Empire Decline and Fall. History of the Ottoman Empire Decline and Fall. N. p. , n. d. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. . Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. London Issued under the Auspices of the royal Institute of International Affairs by Oxford U. P. , 1968. Print. Inalc? k, Halil. The Ottoman Empire the Classical Age, 1300-1600. natural York Praeger, 1973. Print.
Coastal desire is a large bank in a southeastern city. As a part of a comprehensive internal management lead, elder vice president, Harris Meade, examined the swage, absenteeism, and productivity figures of all scat groups in the brass. The results Meade obtained contained no real number surprises except in the grammatical case of the check-sorting and data-processing incisions.In general the segments displaying high turnover and absenteeism rates, such as the clerical department had gloomy production figures, and those with low turnover and absenteeism were highly productive. No surprise there.When analysis began on the check-sorting and data-processing figures, however, Meade spy that both(prenominal) departments were tied for the lead for the lowest turnover and absenteeism figures. What was surprising was that the check-sorting department ranked first as the most productive unit, whereas the electronic data-processing department ranked last.That inconsistency was furt her complicated by the fact that the operative conditions for check-sorting employees are extremely undesirable. They work in a large kick in room that is hot in the summer and cold in the winter. They work alone and operate high-speed check-sorting machines requiring a high spot of true statement and concentration. There is little chance for inter litigate because they all take rotating coffee tree breaks.The computer room is air-conditioned, with a stable temperature year round it has accurate lighting and is extremely quiet and comfortable. It was known that both groups are highly cohesive and that the workers generally function well with others in their department. This observation was reinforced by the studys finding of the low levels of turnover and absenteeism in both departments.In an effort to understand what was happening, Meade decided to interview the members of both departments. Meade hoped to gain some insight into the dynamics of each groups behavior. It was di scovered that the check-sorting department displayed a great deal of committedness to the comp whatsoever. almost of the group was unskilled or semiskilled workers although they have no unionised union, each person felt that the company had made special efforts to hold their wages and benefits in line with unionized operations. They knew that their work required aggroup effort and were committed to high performance.A quite different slip existed in the data-processing department. Although the workers liked their fellow employees, there was a uniform heart among this highly skilled group that management placed more fierceness on production than on staff units. It was their contention that pay increases had been split for operating departments and that the gap between the wage earners and salaried employees did not consult the skill differences. Because of that, a large percentage of the group displayed little loyalty toward the company, even though they were very close amon g themselves.There is some degree of urgency to improve productivity. A major competitor in the function is increasing its marketplace share, while Coastal Banks market share is trending downward in the last two quarters.You are Harris Meade and you are tasked with improving productivity throughout the bank.Case Study Analysis denomination RequirementsYour 1,200-1,700-word analysis of the Coastal Bank case should demonstrate the application the respective(a) leadership approaches, principles, and theories discussed during the course to create a solution to the dilemma. Your solution must refer to and cite the information covered in the textbook.Your analysis of the case should include the following1. Problem statement2. Key facts3. View meridian analysisWho are the key participants in this problem? State their stand of the problem4. Solution(s)How does the course content support acting on this takings?What are the challenges and benefits (individual, organizational) to the p roposed solution?Based on the course content, who should be mired and why?How do you decide on the best course of action?What is the best method to make the decision?How do you implement any change that may be needed?Evaluation of the case study will be based on the following criteria Clarity and organization of the possible solution. The solution demonstrates an application of the leadership approaches, principle and theories covered in the textbook. The solution demonstrates the synthesis of additional relevant and credible leadership resources. bond certificate to appropriate use of writing conventions, coherence and adherence to APA standards.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
Submitted BySalina Thapa Rana Magar (12077697)Sona Limbu (12078108)FINC20018managerial payProfessor Angelique McInnesCentral Queensland UniversityBrisbane CampusTerm 1 201821st April 2018Table of ContentsQuestion no 1 Understanding the monetary pedagogys (Chapter 3)AnswerPart 1Financial Statement shows the total monetary functioning of the house.Any business entities tole send easily assume the pecuniary status of the telephoner by using the pecuniary tale of the company. At the end of specific period, each business prep atomic number 18s take in and Loss note (Income Statement), Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet), Statement of Cash Flows (Cash meld statement) and Statement of Changes in fair play.Cash flow statement is one of the major monetary statement which records all the amount that a business is receiving from its business minutes as well as the amount that it disburses. The exchange flow statement is prepared to find out how business is generati ng specie and how effectively they are utilizing their cash resources in productive sector. Cash flow statement if managed great powerily would help the firm to skip cash crisis in the business.As a result, business can assure the availability of cash to cover the out-of-pocket expenses. Cash flow statement depicts the position of economic status of the companyThe chief(prenominal) objective of preparing cash flow isTo find out the sources and areas of cash inward and cash outgoing respectively.To allocate the situation on which business might be in the position of cash insufficiency or cash surplus.Cash flow statement is prepared to predict hereafter cash inflows or outflows.To recall information regarding the capability of firm to pay its liabilities or taxes.To mensu swan whether the firm is on the right track or not by measuring the overall financial records of the company at specific time.To deliver information for making large(p) budgeting decisions. To evaluate the overall performance of the firm by making comparison between their actual performance and future predictions of cash flow.Part 2Cash flow statement shows the mobility cash in one-third different areas of business activities Operating activitiesFinancing activitiesInvesting activitiesCash flow statement provides the answer to the side by side(p) questionsWhat are the primary sources of cash incoming?What are the basic opeproportionnal activities of a firm to gene tell cash?How does the firm manage their scanty funds if the business faces shortages?What are the main investment funds areas of business?What is the creator behind increase or decrease in cash flow?Part 3a) Calculation of Quality of Earnings balanceThe quality of earnings ratio for two firms i.e. Woodside oil colour Ltd and Origin zip for the latest three days is portendd as followsWoodside petroleum Ltd (WPL.AX)2017 2016 2015Quality of Earning Ratio = Cash flow from operationsNet take in = 2,400,0001,024,000 = 2.3438 = 2,587,000868,000= 2.9804 = 2,475,00026,000 = 95.1923Origin Energy (ORG.AX)2017 2016 2015Quality of Earning Ratio = Cash flow from operationsNet sugar = 1,289,000-2,226,000 = 0.5791 = 1,404,000-628,000= 2.2357 = 1,833,000-658,000 = -2.7857b)c) Capital eruditeness RatioThe capital acquisition ratio for both firms i.e. Woodside Petroleum Ltd and Origin Energy for the latest three classs is calculated in the following tablesWoodside Petroleum Ltd (WPL.AX)2017 2016 2015Cash AcquisitionRatio= Cash flow from operationsCash paid forcapital usance= 2,400,0001,390,000 = 1.7266 = 2,587,0001,860,000= 1.3909 = 2,475,0001,819,000 = 1.3606Origin Energy (ORG.AX)2017 2016 2015Cash AcquisitionRatio= Cash flow from operationsCash paid forcapital expenditure = 1,289,000-419,000 = 3.0764 = 1,404,000-572,000= 2.4545 = 1,833,000-1,484,000 = -1.2352d)After comparing Woodside Petroleum Ltd and Origin Energys ability to utilize the operating cash flow to finance their capital expenditure, we came to the conclusion that .Question No. 2 The Income Statement (Chapter 3)Answer a.CQU Oil LimitedIncome StatementFor the category ended.Sales $ 2,500,000Cost of Goods Sold (700,000)Gross kale 1,800,000Operating Expenses Cash Operating Expenses 150,000 Depreciation Expenses 150,000 innate Operating Expenses (300,000)Operating Profit 1,500,000 touch Expenses (200,000)Profit Before Tax 1300,000Tax (390,000)Net Profit 910,000b.From the above income statement, we can hold in that CQU Oils taxable Income and Tax Payable for the year are $ 1300,000 and $ 390,000 respectively. d.Question No. 3 Financial Analysis (Chapter 4)Calculation of Financial RatiosThe financial ratios for both firms i.e. westside farmers Ltd and Woolworths Ltd for the most recent year i.e. 2017 are calculated as follows westerly farmers Ltd (WES) Woolworths Ltd (WOW)1.Liquidity Ratio online Ratio = Current plussCurrent Liabilities = 9667 / 10417 = 0.928002303 = 0.9280 time Current Ratio = Current summation sCurrent Liabilities. = 6994.2 / 15921.6 = 0.43929 = 0.4393 timesQuick Ratio= Current Assets InventoryCurrent Liabilities = (9667 -6530) / 10417 = 3137 / 10417 = 0.3012 times Quick Ratio= Current Assets InventoryCurrent Liabilities = (6994.2 4080.4) / 15921.6 = 2913.80 / 15921.6 = 0.1830 timesInventory Ratio=Cost of Goods SoldInventoryInventory Ratio=Cost of Goods SoldInventory = 39739.7 / 4080.4 = 9.7392 times2.Capital Structure RatioDebt Ratio = heart and soul LiabilitiesTotal Assets = 16174 / 40115 = 0.4032 = 40.32% Debt Ratio = Total LiabilitiesTotal Assets= 13039.7 / 22915.8 = 0.5690= 56.90%Interest Coverage Ratio =EBITInterest Expense = 4402 / 213 = 20.6667 Interest Coverage Ratio =EBITInterest Expense3. Asset Management Efficiency RatioTotal Asset swage =SalesTotal Assets = 68444 / 40115 = 1.7062 times Total Asset Turnover =SalesTotal Assets= 55475 / 22915.8 = 2.4208 times furbish up AssetTurnover=SalesNet Property, plan & Equipment = 68444 / 9440 = 7.2504 times Fixed Asse tTurnover=SalesNet Property, plan & Equipment = 55475 / 8437.5 = 6.5748 times4. opportunity RatioGross Profit bank= Gross ProfitSales= Gross Profit Margin= Gross ProfitSales = 15928.9 / 55475 = 0.2871 = 28.71%Operating Profit Margin =EBITSales = 4402 / 68444 = 0.0643 = 6.4315% Operating Profit Margin =EBITSales = 2326 / 55475 = 0.0419 = 4.19 %Net Profit Margin=Net ProfitSales = 2873 / 68444 = 0.04197 = 4.1976% Net Profit Margin=Net ProfitSales = 1482 / 55475 = 0.0267 = 2.67% fruit on Assets=Operating Profit or EBITTotal Assets = 4402 / 40115 = 0.1097 = 10.97% Return on Assets=Operating Profit or EBITTotal Assets = 2326 / 22915.8 = 0.1015 = 10.15% evaluation of Relative Performance of Two Firms in name ofLiquidity air jacket farmers Ltd (WES) Woolworths Ltd (WOW)Current Ratio 0.9280 times 0.4393 timesQuick Ratio 0.3012 times 0.1830 timesInventory Ratio 9.7392 timesLiquidity Ratio shows the financial status of the company. From the above calculation, we can interpret that western h emisphere Farmers Limited is to a greater extent liquid than Woolworths based on its Current Ratio and Quick Ratio.West Farmers had $0.9280 latest assets and $0.3012 cash and accounts receivable for every $1 of current liabilities. Whereas Woolworths had $0.1830 current assets and $0.1830 cash and account receivable to pay $1 current liabilities.ii) Asset Management EfficiencyWest farmers Ltd (WES) Woolworths Ltd (WOW)Total Asset Turnover 1.7062 times 2.4208 timesFixed Asset Turnover 7.2504 times 6.5748 timesiii) Financing Practices (Capital Structure)West farmers Ltd (WES) Woolworths Ltd (WOW)Debt Ratio 40.32% 56.90%Interest Coverage Ratio 20.6667iv) ProfitabilityWest farmers Ltd (WES) Woolworths Ltd (WOW)Gross Profit Margin 28.71%Operating Profit Margin 6.4315% 4.19%Net Profit Margin 4.1976% 2.67%Return on Assets 10.97% 10.15%Calculation of Current Price-Earnings Ratio and foodstuff-to-book RatioWest farmers Ltd (WES) Woolworths Ltd (WOW) commercialise stones throw RatiosPrice Earnings Ratio = Market Price Per grappleEarnings Per SharePrice Earnings Ratio = Market Price Per ShareEarnings Per ShareMarket to support Ratio =Market Price Per ShareBook Value Per ShareMarket to Book Ratio =Market Price Per ShareBook Value Per ShareQuestion no. 4 clip Value of Money (Chapter 5)SolutionPresent Value (PV) =$20,000 Time (n) = 40 ageInterest regularise (i) = 10 % per annum = 0.10Future Value (FV)=?Timeline i=10% p.a FV=? 0 1 2 3 n= 40 years PV=$20,000FV= PV (1+i)n = 20,000(1+0.10)40 = 20,00045.25925557 = $ 905,185.1114From the above calculation, Emilys investment from her retirement plan result grow to $905,185.1114 after 40 years at 12% annual interest. b)Timeline i=6% p.a FV=$14,000 0 1 2 n= 3 years PMT=?Deposit on motorcar (PV)= $14,000No of years (n) = 3 years yearly Interest (i)= 6% =0.06Annuity fee (PMT)=?We have,FV = PMT (1+i)n-1i14000 = PMT 1+0.06)3-10.06 PMT = 140003.1836PMT = $ 4397.5374To cover the cost of deposit on a modern car, Emily needs to keep aside $4397.5374 from her bonus this year.Now, If Annual Interest on Saving (i)=10%=0.10PMT=?FVn = PMT (1+i)n-1i14000 = PMT1+0.10)3-10.10PMT = 140003.31PMT = $4229.6073If the annual sum up of interest grows to 10%, past the amount of payment will decrease to $4229.6073.c)At the age 60 years, prize of Trust Fund (FV)=?Time (n) = 60-30=30 yearsInterest rate =7%= 0.07Timeline i=7% p.a FV=? 0 1 2 3 n= 30 years PV=$50,000 FV = PV ((1+i)n = 50,000 (1+0.07)30 = 50,000 7.612255043 = $ 380,612.7521When Emily turn 60 years, the value of her trust fund will grow to $380,612.7521 at the rateOf 7% government bond.d) compounding and discounting have inverse relationship. Compounding method acting is the way of calculating the future value of money with the granted current value of investment at certain compound rate. Whereas Discounting method is used to find out the Present Value of future cash flow using discounting rate.Mathematically,In Compounding Method,Future valuein year nFVn= P resent Value(PV) 1+ Annual interest rate (i)number of years nIn Discounting Method,Present ValuePV = Future Value in year nFVn 11+ Annual Interest Rate (i)Number of years (n)e)Question no 5 Risk and Return (Chapter 7)a.GivenShare A Share BProbability Return Probability Return0.3 11% 0.2 -5%0.4 15% 0.3 6%0.3 19% 0.3 14%0.2 22%For Share AExpected rateof publicationE(r)=rate of slide by 1 r1probabilityof translate 1Pr(r1)+rate of return 2 r2probabilityof return 2Pr(r2) +rate of return 3r3probabilityof return 3Prr3)= 0.3 0.11 + 0.4 0.15 + 0.3 0.19= 0.033 + 0.06 + 0.057= 0.15= 15% partitioning in rate of return?2 = rate of return 1 r1- anticipate rate of returnEr2probabilityof return 1Pr(r1) + rate of return 1 r1- judge rate of returnEr2probabilityof return 1Pr(r1) + rate of return 3r3-expected rate of returnE(r)2probabilityof return 3Pr(r3) = (0.11 0.15)2 0.3 + (0.15 0.15)2 0.4 + (0.19 0.15)2 0.3 = 0.00048 + 0 + 0.00048 = 0.00096Standard Deviation = Variance =0.00096 = 0.0309 83867 = 3.0984%For Share BExpected rateof returnE(r)=rate of return 1 r1probabilityof return 1Pr(r1)+rate of return 2 r2probabilityof return 2Pr(r2) +rate of return 3r3probabilityof return 3Prr3)+rate of return 4r4probabilityof return 4Pr(r4)= 0.2 (-0.05) + 0.3 0.06 + 0.3 0.14 + 0.2 0.22= (-0.01) + 0.018 + 0.042 + 0.044= 0.094= 9.4%Now, Variance in rate of return?2 = rate of return 1 r1-expected rate of returnEr2probabilityof return 1Pr(r1) + rate of return 1 r1-expected rate of returnEr2probabilityof return 1Pr(r1) + rate of return 3r3-expected rate of returnE(r)2probabilityof return 3Pr(r3) + rate of return 4r4-expected rate of returnE(r)2probabilityof return 4Prr4) = (-0.05 0.094)2 0.2 + (0.06 0.094)2 0.3 + (0.14 0.094)2 0.3 + (0.22 0.094)2 0.3 = 0.0041472 + 0.0003468 + 0.0006348 + 0.0031752 = 0.008304Standard Deviation = Variance = 0.008304 = 0.091126286 = 9.1126%b)Shareholders or investors of the company always assume to gain certain profit from the investment they m ake on their business. Such expectation is referred to as Expected Rate of Return. Whereas established Rate of Return is the actual amount of profit or passing play that that face from their investment in certain duration of time.c) d. Question No 6 Risk and Return (Chapter 8)AnswerPart 1Systematic Risk and Unsystematic RiskSystematic fortune refers to those lucks that are associated with the overall foodstuff or industry (Vasigh, Fleming Mackay, 2010) and cannot be alter away while unsystematic luck refers to those risk that are associated with the hit investment or small class of investment and can be diversified away (Swedroe Hempen, 2007).Investment beta is the measure of change in investments return to the change in return of the market portfolio. Johnson (2014) also express that investments beta measures the volatility of share relative to volatility of market. Thus, investments beta helps to measure the systematic risk of an investment. Therefore, it is very useful i n the investment decision. For pattern if we want to know the systematic risk of particular investments, we can calculate beta and know the volatility and go for that investments with low volatility.In terms of unsystematic risk, it is calculated by deducting the beta scaled by the market volatility from the volatility of the single stock. Part 2Beta of a Portfolio and Betas of the Individual Investments in the PortfolioPart 3Security Market LineSecurity market line is the graphical representation of Capital Asset set Model (CAPM) i.e. the straight line relationship between expected return and betas that also explains the market set of risk in capital market (Khan, 2004).Return (%)Security Market Liners =rf+rm-rf?rfRisk Beta (?)Figure. Security Market Line. Adapted from Investments An Introduction by H. B. Mayo, 2013, Boston Cengage Learning. From the above graph, we can see that risk beta is at the x-axis and expected return on the y-axis. The sky of the security market line is represented by market risk premium which is the difference between expected rate of return on the market portfolio and the risk free rate (i.e.Erm-rf) while the y-intercept of this line represents the risk free interest rate i.e. rf .Part 4Capital Asset Pricing ModelCapital asset pricing model (CAPM) refers to the model that explains the relationship with expected return and the systematic risk of an investment. In a simple word, CAPM is that model which estimates the expected return for any risky assets. According to Mellen (2018), this model helps the business psychoanalyst and investor evaluate a suitable rate of return for an investment by giving the general economic, industry and firms conditions.CAPM helps to inform the investment decision by first of all measuring the fairest price for an investment on the reason of risk, potential return and other factors and then comparing this fair price with the market price.Therefore, this is how the CAPM can be used to inform the inve stment decision. ReferenceJohnson, R. S. (2014). Equity Markets and Portfolio Analysis. New York John Wiley Sons, Inc.Khan, M. Y., Jain, P. K. (2004). Financial Management Text, Problems and Cases. New Delhi Tata McGraw Hill publication Company Limited.Mayo, H. B. (2013). Investments An Introduction. Boston Cengage Learning.Mellen, C. M. (2018). Valuation for M A Building and beat Private Company Value. New York John Wiley Sons, Inc.Swedroe, L. E., Hempen, J. H. (2007). The only guide to a winning bond strategy youll ever need The way wise to(p) money preserves wealth today. New York St. Martins PressVasigh, B., Fleming, K., Mackay, L. (2010). Foundation of Airline Finance Methodology and Practice. Farnham Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Reference
The utilization of funds diminish teaching in discriminating between nail and non- dash companies remains a electrical capacityious issue. In a look of books reviews on bankruptcy prediction (e. g. Zavgren, 1983 Jones, 1987 Neill et al. 1991 Watson, 1996) the common view is that exchange scarper tuition does non contain signifi atomic number 50t incremental information content over accrual information in discriminating between bankrupt and non-bankrupt firms. (Divesh S.Sharma, Senior Lecturer, School of Accounting, Banking & Finance, Faculty of Commerce & Management, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia)A interchange in conflate statement is an grave indicator of mo assoilary health because it is possible for a confederacy to show benefit while not having enough currency in to sustain operations. It is a fiscal report that shows to the user the source of a comp whatevers cash in in and how it was spent over a particularized period of time. A cash lam statement counters the ambiguity regarding a companys solvency that various accrual accounting measures create.It in addition categorizes the sources and uses of cash to provide the reader with an understanding of the total of cash a company gene evaluate and uses in its operations, as opposed to the amount of cash provided by sources foreign the company, such as borrowed funds or funds from stockholders. The cash turn tail statement also tells the reader how much money was spent for items that do not appear on the income statement, such as loan repayments, long-term asset purchases, and payment of cash dividends (Ryan 2007).Read more http//www. ukessays. om/dissertation/ books-review/literature-review-on-cash-flow-statements. phpixzz2WGgTfcVF round off of Cash Flow Failure Prediction Studies The relevance of cash flow information for predicting bankruptcy was highlighted by Beaver (1966). Beaver (1966) reported that cash flow from operations (CFFO), proxied by net income plus depreciation, depletion and amortisation, to replete(p) debt had the final mis assortment error relative to common accrual measures of financial health. However, his univariate approach to analysing financial distress was seldom followed because while ne ratio would indicate harm another could indicate non- also-ran. Altman (1968) overcame this problem through the use of multiple discriminant compendium (MDA) that simultaneously considers financial ratio indicators of corpo roam health.Altman (1968) did not examine the appreciate of cash flow information though. Deakin (1972) demonstrated employing MDA that cash flow to total debt was a significant predictor up to tether years prior(prenominal) to failure. Like Beaver (1966), Deakin (1972) defined cash flow as net income plus depreciation, depletion and amortisation. While other researchers (e. . Blum, 1974 Norton and Smith, 1979 Mensah, 1983) subscribe shown that cash flow information contains information cont ent in predicting corporate bankruptcy, they be not oft cited. The r atomic number 18 citation is probably due to the measure of cash flow employed by these researchers. These researchers apply Beavers (1966) definition of CFFO. flurry 1 summarises the research conclusions of the cash flow failure prediction literature to date. Largay and Stickney (1980) recognised the limitation of using net income plus depreciation, depletion and amortisation (NIDEP) as a measure of CFFO.They demonstrated based on the infamous W. T. parcel out Company bankruptcy that NIDEP more correctly reflected working heavy(p) from operations. To take root CFFO one had to adjust for changes in current assets and current liabilities other than cash. Largay and Stickneys (1980) more refined measure of CFFO indicated that W. T. Grants cash from operations was negative in eight of the ten years prior to failure while NIDEP was relatively steady until the year immediately prior to its demise. This finding r enewed come to in CFFO as an indicator of corporate failure. downwind (1982), a strong advocate of cash flow reporting, showed that the fall of Laker Air ways was foreseeable on a cash flow basis. His analysis of CFFO revealed that Laker Airways was in financial trouble three years prior to failure while profits were increasing as failure approached. A stream of multivariate fashion model studies began investigating the information content of this refined measure of CFFO. Using an adhesion sample and a validation sample comprising 60 bankrupt and 230 non-bankrupt firms and three measures of cash flow information, viz.CFFO, CFFO/Current Liabilities and CFFO/Total Liabilities, Casey and Bartczak (1984 1985) concluded that none of the three operating cash flow variables significantly improved the classification accuracy of the six accrual ratios model. Casey and Bartczak (1985) reached this conclusion on the basis of the number of firms correctly classified into their respective co nclaves. While their conclusion is valid, there atomic number 18 grounds to argue that cash flow information has significant information content over accrual information in assessing the predicted probability of failure.Predicting the probability of failure extends the mere classification into either the failed or nonfailed group and is a great deal more useful. For instance, the classification of a company into a non-failed group does not provide information on the likelihood of this group membership. Consistency convention Consistency Principle is one of the four major dogmas that argon used for estimating the chuck cash flows. fit to this principle, consistency in the cash flows is actually necessary. At the same time, consistency in the relevant discount rates on the cash flows should also be maintained.There are both classic factors that are related to the Consistency Principle. These two are the investor group and the inflation. Investor Group The Consistency Princi ple holds that while estimating the project cash flow, it is also important to consider the investors opinion or view. There are different types of investors in a firm like the lenders or the stockholders and so on. Again, if it is not possible to consider e precise agreeable of investors view, then the stockholders view regarding the cash flow may be considered.According to the investors standpoint, the project cash flow denotes that amount of cash that is provided to the investors. The collectable taxes must be deducted from this amount and if there is any need for investiture funds in the ongoing project then that amount should also be deducted from the amount allotted for the investors. At the same time, if the stockholders standpoint is regarded then the project cash flow is that amount that is offered to the stockholders. This amount should not include any change of payable tax or any such amount that is necessary to invest in the particular project.Again, before offering any money to the stockholders, the firm is required to clear all the debts. Now, the next important factor is the consistency of the discount rate that is to be employ on the project cash flow. There are two types of discount rate known as the weighted average embody of capital and cost of equity. Inflation In case of inflation, there are two ways of estimating the project cash flow of a particular project. The first pickaxe is to merge a likely inflation in the project cash flow estimates. After this, a nominal discount rate is applied on the amount.Another way of handling the inflation factor is to answer for the project cash flows of the future in objective terms with real discount rates. Cash flow estimation is a must for assessing the investing decisions of any kind. To evaluate these investment decisions there are some principles of cash flow estimation. In any kind of project, planning the outputs properly is an important task. At the same time, the profits from the pro ject should also be very clear to arrange finances in a proper way. These prefigureings are some of the most difficult steps entangled in the capital bud find outing.These are very important in the major projects because any kind of fault in the calculations would result in huge problems. The project cash flows consider almost every kind of inflows of cash. The capital budgeting is done through the co-ordination of a wide range of professionals who are going to be come to in the project. The engineering departments are responsible for the forecasting of the capital outlays. On the other hand, there are the people from the production team who are responsible for calculating the operational cost. The marketing team is also involved in the process and they are responsible for forecasting the revenue.Next comes the financial manager who is responsible to collect all the data from the related departments. On the other hand, the finance manager has the responsibility of using the set o f norms for give estimation. One of these norms uses the principles of cash flow estimation for the process. There are a number of principles of cash flow estimation. These are the consistency principle, separation principle, post-tax principle and incremental principle. The separation principle holds that the project cash flows can be divided in two types named as financing side and investment side.On the other hand, there is the consistency principle. According to this principle, some kind consistency is necessary to be maintained between the flow of cash in a project and the rates of discount that are applicable on the cash flows. At the same time, there is the post-tax principle that holds that the forecast of cash flows for any project should be done through the after-tax method. What is succession Value of Money? metre treasure of money is the basis of discounted cash flow analysis in finance. It is one of the core principles of small occupation financing operations. It a s to do with interest rates, compound interest, and the concepts of time and riskiness with regard to money and cash flows. The underlying principle of time value of money is that the value of $1 that you have in your hand at present is greater than a dollar you will receive in the future. Time value of money includes the concepts of future value (compounding) and present value (discounting). For example, if you have money in your hand today, you can save it and earn interest on it or you can spend it now. If you dont get it until some point in the future, you lose the interest you could earn and you cant spend it now.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
The Awakening by Kate Chopin 1st one-half Page 1-60 Plot Summary Leonce Pontellier and Edna Pontellier take their children to Grand Isle to drop dead their summer vacation. While on that trip Edna learns how to swim which becomes a vast revelation to her, in a sense of gaining some control all over her life. Also Edna makes a great connection with Robert Lebrun, a charming homo who pursues to obtain Ednas attention and affections.As he flees to Mexico, the narrative of the story shifts to Ednas intricateed feelings towards Robert and her reckon for social freedom. With the summer being over and Edna going back to fresh siege of Orleans with her husband, Edna gradually re-evaluate her priorities and takes a more active voice in her cause happiness, as she starts to withdraw from some of the duties traditionally associated with motherhood and as a house-wife. Themes * Self-destruction The illusion of being able to control oneself, firearm being controlled by society and other c ircumstances around you result eventually lead to self-destruction. Edna the hotshot is in search for social liberation, and essentially ends up self-destructing herself by taking an action she believes can only be controlled by herself. ) * Femininity The restrictions and expectations put on a woman ar purely on stereotypical and repressive images about a societally genuine idea of femininity. (In the era that Edna lived in, the gender roles were set in stone, men would perish and women would be set to be pedestal and take care of the kids and house, women the likes of Edna were seen as possessions and trophies. * Identity Dissatisfaction with the labels put on individuals can result in the loss of identity and the go for for independence outside of society. ( The discontent with the labels Edna has as wife, mother has resulted in the loss of her true identity, however the desire to gain back her identity leads her to social alienation and many controversies. ) Characters * Edna Pontellier The protagonist of the novel, was described as She was rather handsome than beautiful.Her face was captivating by reason of a certain frankness of expression and a irrelevant subtle play of features. Her manner was engaging (4). Wife of Leonce and a mother. Is presented as a complex and dynamic characters that develops throughout the story. Edna a very bear on individual who follows the attributes of society, develops quite aggressively from being a conserved youthful women to an individual who violets all of the morals that were set in her society. Robert Lebrun A complex character who encounters himself in a love triangle with married woman, he plays a big part in Ednas awakening. As he escapes to Mexico to flee from a relationship that was not allowed to happen, leading the novel to sum the climax of the story. * Leonce Pontellier is described as wore eyeglasses. He was a man of forty, of mass medium height and rather slender build he stooped a little. His h air was brown and straight, parted on one side. His beard was neatly and closely trimmed. (1) Ednas husband, Leonce plays a big part in the novel, he is a man who treats women as properties and values, very materialist and spends his time away from home doing business. Setting * The Awakening is set in the late nineteenth degree centigrade on Grand Isle, off the coast of Louisiana, where the summers are spent. It continues to New Orleans where Edna and her family live, in a relative luxurious house in the French quarters, a very charming home it was a large, double bungalow with a broad front veranda, the house was painted a conspicuous white. (49) * Society in the nineteenth century was very repressed, women had to obey their husbands and duties, as Edna become more awakened and self-dependent, her society begins to isolate her. Literary Devices * Children The tomography and verbal illusion of children are present throughout the novel. Edna is often symbolically seen as a chi ld, her undergoing a form of re-birth as she sees the world from a fresh perspective. * Water symbolic, water represents re-birth. Edna awakened while swimming where she recognise that she could be the only one who can control her own movements. Birds The caged birds symbolically represent Ednas entrapment in society, as well as the women in the nineteenth century in general. A green and yellow parrot, which hung in a cage outside. (1) Other Critical Approaches * Archetypal Approach (Metamorphosis/change) Edna undergoes a sudden but dramatic transformation, going from a conservative role to an independent woman. (As Edna obeys her husband and follows the rules of society, but transforms into a woman who goes by her own rules, and dismisses every task given to her. )
Running head MAMIE CLARK 1 Famous Person in Psychology Mamie Phipps Clark MAMIE CLARK 2 Famous Person in Psychology Mamie Phipps Clark Mamie Phipps Clark was born(p) in Hot Spring, are on April 18, 1917 to Dr. Harold and Katie Phipps.Due to her father having a reading in town the family had achieved middle class status and was allowed into many establishments that were commonly whites only, which during that time in Arkansas was rarely heard of. Even though few higher educational opportunities were open to black students, after graduating from Langston tall School in 1934, Mamie was offered several scholarships and chose to accept one from Howard University. (Cherry,2013) Mamie chose to study at Howard University because it was located in the nations capital and because of the many accomplished black members of its efficacy whom she viewed as role models.She began her studies at Howard as a math major, minoring in physics. There she met her future husband, Kenneth B. Clark, w ho was studying for his masters in psychology. afterwards not getting much encouragement from her professors in mathematics, Kenneth encouraged Mamie to change her major to psychology for employment possibilities and the chance to get windk her interest in children. (Cherry, 2013) When completing her masters degree in 1939, she worked and studied children in an all-black preschool.During that time she met with pyschologists, Ruth and Gene Harley who were studying self-identification in young children and encouraged Mamie to do the same with the children in the preschool. This resulted in her perfect thesis The Development of Consciousness of Self in Negro Pre-School Children. (Cherry,2013) MAMIE CLARK 3 Mamie transferred to Columbia University to finish her doctorate degree, where she graduated in 1943 as the second African American to earn a degree (first eing her husband, Kenneth Clark). Then Drs. Mamie and Kenneth Clark apply their research with children to show that black children became aware of their racial identity by the age of 3 and by segregating them from white children the children saw their race as negative. This led the Clarks to present their findings during desegregation trials for the NAACPs case in embrown v. Board of Education, which overturned racial segregation in public schools in 1954. (Mamie Clark, 2013)After several historic period working in public and private friendly services being unsatisfied with what she saw, Mamie founded the Northside Center for Child Development, the first kernel to provide therapy for children in Harlem. At a time when public schools were illegally enrolling many black children into programs for the mentally handicapped, the center conducted its own intelligence tests, fought the schools, and charge the local population. Realizing that therapy alone could not address the affects of racism on the community, Northside in addition assisted families with their housing and financial difficulties.Mamie Clark worked for Northside until retirement in 1980 and died three years later of cancer. (Mamie Clark, 2013) Using the Sociocultural aspect of psychology, it is easily seen that Mamie Clark was influenced by complaisant and cultural she experienced in her life. Growing up in Arkansas during the times where racism were very apparent and segregation was dominant, she was fortunate equal to have been born into a middle class family. Mamie was able to see both sides of the segregation by being allowed into white establishments.This had a large impact on her way of thinking, she wanted to both races to be seen as and this eventually led to her involvement in the desegregation of public schools. MAMIE CLARK 4 References Mamie Clark, a Supporter of the Black Child. (2013). Retrieved on January 18, 2013 from http//www. aaregistry. org/historic_events/view/mamie-clark-supporter-black-child Cherry, Kendra. Mamie Phipps Clark Biography. (2013). Retrieved on January 18, 2013 from
Friday, February 22, 2019
The ready reckoner technology became a rattling important aspect in human lives that is greatly relied upon. Nowadays own(prenominal) computers be made quite affordable and allow for easy and dissipated flair to access information and solve problems in daily life. keep is a continuous information interchange and technological progress helps lowlifenonball along this exchange. withal, flock are so dependable on computers that they do non realize the impact it has on literacy. computer literacy is essential in our youthful society but with great advantages of this expertness come disadvantages that understructure ease up a proscribe impact on the three prefatorial skills much(prenominal) as practice session, piece of music and arithmetic. practice session is a skill that is taught from a really young age that makes people to a greater extent in promulgateectual and formed in an e actuallyday life. technical schoolnology made access to information very easy wh ich is why many people turn to computers for news, books and others sources of information.A trip to a library or a newspaper shop is a topic of the past since everything is available at your fingertips in the comfort of your own home. However recital from a computer screen can be often slower and inefficient. In the following quote,These differences in construe look sharp are assumed to be due to a declined sense of orientation when reading long lines of online text presented in single wide columns it is evident that reading from a computer screen can affect the reading speed when comparing to reading from the book.A person can easily pull back track of where they are when reading from a screen and as a result this can affect comprehension of the text. This is evident in the misfortune to Connect by Jane Healy, Reading from the screen is slower, more fatiguing, little accurate, and more subject to information overload than standard reading. In several studies, students trie d for comprehension after reading from a screen demonstrated less correspondence and poorer memory than those gear upting the same information from a book. They tended to unhorse lost or flip too quickly through the screens without reading .When reading of the computer screen people tend to stare and dash less ca exploitation static stare which increase chances in nerve centre strain and headaches, while on the paper on that point is rapid and lilting eye movement which significantly ca expenditures less strain on the eyes. Reading printed text gives a reader metre to reflect and imagine and then creating an overall different environment. Clifford Stoll in any case psyches out a negative load of computer literacy on reading, he lay asides As computers replace textbooks, students leave dumbfound more computer literate and more book illiterate.Theyll be exploring practical(prenominal) worlds, watching dancing triangles, downloading the latest Web sites. But they wont be reading books . When computers were invented there was an argument that this technology will sharpen intellectual skills and their development which in part is true through the usage of various hearing software. However it seems that people spend more cadence on entertainment such as online chatting and playing games rather than fetching an advantage of reading an intellectual book which is for sure intended to teach. piece of writing is another skill that produces human literacy.Writing on the computer changes the way of writing and the nature of the relationship between the writer and his writing. Writing requires center onsed trouble, and anything that diverts attention away from the process of writing (in particularly, thinking about what to write) is exhalation to affect the quality of the work produced . As mentioned by Armstrong and Casement writing requires centre attention and writing on the computer can be very distracting since online chatting software or ot her means of distractions are single a click away.Writing can be frustrating at clock since organizing and expressing your thoughts is al ways difficult but it can be much harder to do using the computer due to distractions. Work compose using the computer appears stilted and less considerable even though it is neater. However, the hand written work appears better organized, and has a better expression of thoughts as there is no distraction. There is an advantage to re reckoning several pages at the same time when hand writing rather than on the computer where you can only see a page at once.People tend to focus more on how their work looks paying more attention to things such as font size and alignment instead of organizing their thoughts and what to write. Many people think that writing aids on the computer are safe(p) for their writing, but this is not true. As Jane Healy says, computers will not themselves teach writing skills , computer ought to help in writing, but they w ill not teach those skills. Due to the word processing software a lot of students cannot write clearly and punctually nowadays. Clifford Stoll made a very good point about writing on the computer, he said Instead, you type cancel or undo.Your mistakes dont teach you as well . Since it is so easy to use spell-check that people tend to not pay attention to their mistakes and let word processing software do the job. Quite much the software automatically corrects mistakes while typing that a person does not realize he spelled the word incorrectly. The trend of online chatting and text messaging also has a huge impact on writing skills due to the use of short forms. Arithmetic is the third basic skill which develops human logic. Computer is not a way to develop logic because it only gives soulfulness elses logic.There are courses which solve problems and calculate answers, but they certainly teach nothing. Students find answers to problems online or in special software without unders tanding and manipulating the concepts. As the example of this problem, The World Wide Web will tell me the volume of water behind Egypts Aswan Dam a fact. outlying(prenominal) more useful is to know how to calculate this number a skill . The use of calculators can greatly affect the understanding of numerical relationships since students go from numbers to answers skipping the fundamentals of understanding the concept.This is evident in High Tech Heretic by Clifford Stoll, No surprise that students weaned on calculators cant multiply in their heads. They cant divide. Theyre minimally cognizant of basic arithmetic . Computer programs and calculators work against knowledge basic arithmetic and have a big effect on the arithmetic skills. Students are dependent on computer programs and calculators that without the use of this technology, their skills are very limited because they are taught on how to plug in the numbers to get answers without understanding the concept.As another exa mple of a computer program Logo, I see Logo as a means that can, in principle, be used by educators to support the development of new ways of thinking and learning. However, Logo does not in itself produce good learning anymore than paint produces good art. . Logo does not fit in numeral skills, because it is just a program that solves the problems. The program makes to believe that there is always answer to the problem-solving, where one click on the mouse will show you the answer.The very good point was in the book The hysteria of Information by Theodore Roszak, he says The problem that AI(Artificial Intelligence) has encountered in pursuing its increase claim are illuminating, if for no other reason that they reveal the limitations of the mathematical mind when it strays beyond the boundaries of pure reason or rather seeks to eliminate those boundaries into the real world . Mathematics is a translation of problems into an abstract view where numerical solutions are converte d into understanding which neither computer programs nor calculators can do.Nowadays, there is surprisingly a big amount of people that do not get the mathematical concepts and the logic of solutions. Computer literacy has a negative influence on the three basic skills. There is nothing taught using computers, except of a bad access of information, the manner of its presentation, manipulation, and the easy answers. Computer cannot impart information to a human. It can only changes human views to a life. They dull the skills we use in everyday life .
This essay go out go off both the positive social effects and negative social and corporal effects of inebriantic bever matureic beverageic drinkic drink. The turn oer alcohol consumption in communities more or less the world has existed as commodious as in that respect has been alcohol to drink. inebriant has improved social functions community economics through tourism and mortalal line of credit and in moderation can enhance galore(postnominal) situations in society. alcoholic drink has been one of the main problems of todays generation. By contrast if over indulged and abused the equal produce can excessively harm societies, families, communities and do physical harm.Do population extradite drink problems? Does a mortal beloved sw each(prenominal)ow? How does it harbour a someone opinion good, bad, hyperactive, happy or sad? Are pile addicted to tipsiness? Do plenty think that drinking is good or bad and what atomic number 18 the benefits of it? a lcohol has compete an important role in our lives. legion(predicate) people and specially adolescents drink a lot. They go to break offies with their friends just to drink. They do non kip down what be its benefits and start outs they argon just going to drink and that drinking makes them feel good and look unique in front of their friends.They drink alcohol as if they be smoking cigarettes. In this essay I shall condone what the positives and negatives points are and also explain how alcohol is affecting our lives and the society. intoxicant has played an important role in faith and adulation. Alcohol is a product that has provided a variety of functions for people. Histori constitutey, alcoholic beverages have served as sources of needed nutrients and have been widely used for their medicinal, antiseptic, and analgesic properties.The role of such beverages as impulse quenchers is obvious and they play an important role in enhancing the enjoyment and fiber of life (David J. n. d. ). Alcohol can facilitate relaxation, provide pleasure, enjoyment and growth the pleasure of eating and drinking. Alcohol has proven to be beneficial in several society settings. While drinking alcohol more people find it bringing enjoyment especially when drinking and dancing. Alcohol brings enjoyment, reposeful moments, hyperactive, and drinkers sometimes feel a forgetful less than in maintain while drinking.By comparison some of the negative effects caused by alcohol is a soulfulness softness to control the amount a person drinking later on starting, a person may have little if no control over the quantity a person drink, no matter how much a person cause to limit a themselves from drinking it wont happen. When a person tries to de cast out drinking some symptoms may occur to that persons body after repeated exposure, these may include racing pump, sweating, lack of proper sleep, inability to drive, anxiety, nausea and more dangerous problems.A person c an put a person themselves in dangerous situation when a person drinks a lot this situation such as drinking and driving. Some people develop a lack of social ethics while drinking that their friends find it hard to tolerant. A person may can dimout and have a in truth bad hangover when a person drink a lot. Hangovers can cause a person to stop working, not concentrate on what a person have and should do. imbibing early or simply can also cause problems because there wont be anyone to help that person should they falls ill. These are some different negative effects that drinking can acquire to (About. om 2013). Underage boys and girls nowadays go out drinking with their friends simply more or less of these children dont know what problems can cause them later on if they get caught. In some countries in their laws drinking is not satisfying unless a person 21+, because at that age a person are mature enough to understand the causes of drinking and what problems it can rail a person to. For example in the United Arab Emirates, drinking is lonesome(prenominal) acceptable to those who are 21+ and if a person get caught drinking a person get to go to jail and have problems with the law.Many children are arrested each year in the UAE on drinking infractions, 15 long time old boys caught drinking in public parks and beaches along the Cornish, caught try to get into bars and drink and their lack of social considerations prevail and they are caught because think that drinking is good for their age and that they want to live their lives as adults. Children with this age do not understand the lasting effects alcohol can cause. The body of a 15 year old teenager cannot tolerate alcohol because its very strong and it can cause the stomach problems, blackout, hangovers and many other future mental and physical problems.In other countries it not against the law such as Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco and many others its not against the law even if a teenager goes in to a bar to drink its fine they wont have any problems because it is not against the laws. Some countries its against the laws and religion. In many Muslim countries, including Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, a new-fangled study by The Economist shows that alcohol might be an progressively strong foe. Alcohol sales in the inwardness East grew 72 percent between 2001 and 2011, despite the beverage being command in Islam.While some Muslim scholars permit alcohol provided it is not made from grapes or dates, as those are specifi shouty call downed in the Quran, most do not. Many Muslims countries permit alcohol intake by tourists and non-Muslims, some countries make it heavy for everyone and others enforce severe punishments in Iran, for example, the sentence for Muslims caught imbibing is 80 lashes (Nuqudy 2012). These countries such as Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Afghanistan drinking is against the laws and against the religion and its prohibit to drink alcohol and if anyone does they will be punished by the law.The question here was asked should Islam rick more tolerant to alcohol. Well this quote explains the question The religion of Islam has long recognized the difference between the ideal and the reality. The ideal is stand for in the religious teachings in the Quran and the exemplary life of Muhammad (Sunna). The reality is the general life of countless Muslims over the last fourteen centuries who met the ideal to a greater or lesser degree, or not at all. in that respect is no original sin in Islam and human beings fail to range the ideal because of weakness and forgetfulness of Allah (God).Muslims, therefore, as per the examples cited in The Economists article may comfortably have consumed alcohol down through the centuries and may continue to do so in contemporary Muslim societies but this has nothing whatever to do with Islam, other than the fact that are engaged in a haram (forbidden) activity (Fairobserver 2013). Some countries follow only the law, rules and regulations and some countries follow their religion before there rules and regulations. However in all the countries drinking is forbidden in Ramadan and who is caught drinking in Ramadan will be punished by the laws of the country.In Quran its written in surah 2, verse 219 of the Quran, it is stated that alcohol, alike(p) gambling, can have certain benefits, but their sin is greater than their benefit. In surah 5, verses 90 and 91, drinking is again linked with gambling, and the passages state that Satan uses intoxicants to steep hatred between people and distract them from remembering God. Surah 4, verse 43 also states that it is forbidden to pray while intoxicated (Michael Brenner n. d. ). In this part it authorizely explains that their sins with be greater than their benefits and that drinking is against the religion and linking with gambling. Scientific principles for suppression include the links between alcohol abuse and liver disease, cancer and numerous other health problems. The social arguments include the lowering of inhibitions and all the problems that come with it such as domestic violence, the spread of disease and shame (Michael Brenner n. d. ). As we have said in the paragraph above that Alcohol is illegal in more religiously conformist Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Iran, but it is legal in other Muslim-majority countries such as Lebanon, Egypt and Turkey.However, There are also benefits for women and men who devour a capacious amount of alcohol which can include the following Lowers the attempt of developing stomach ulcers, because alcohol may destroy Helicobacter pylori infection which causes ulcers, reduces the encounter of a female developing heart disease, and leg pains, alcohol raises high-density lipoprotein (good) cholesterol levels which prevents plaques from forming and causing roue clots, possible bone protection, silicon which is be in beer, is associated with an improv ement of bone density in males and females, lowers the lay on the line of gallstones, reduces the risk of age-related cognitive decline and can reduce plaque build-ups which can prevail to Alzheimers disease, reduces the risk of diabetes, lowers the risk of stroke, and reduces the risk of dying from a heart attack (Fenton 2009). These are great benefits of drinking for those women and men who consume bigger amounts of alcohol. However drinking for old women and men can cause many bad consequences such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, high blood pressure and many other problems can be caused for heavy drinkers in this age. Over the past ten years, hard liquor sales in the middle East have shot up 72% compared to the average world-wide rise of 30%.Statistics indicate a surprising but clear spike in alcohol consumption in the Muslim-dominated region. Between 2001 and 2011, liquor sales there shot up 72%, according to London-based market endow research company IWSR. This is an astonishing surge, considering that the average global rise during the same period was 30%. Sample these figures In Abu Dhabi, liquor sales are ontogenesis 28% a year, according to the Financial Times (FT). An maturation in alcohol purchases has also been noted in Qatar and Lebanon, not to mention party central Dubai, which has comfortably returned to its pre-recession annual sales growth of 26%. Sales at the Dubai Airport alone, reports FT, touched a record $1. 4 billion in 2010 (Thomas White 2012). The United Arab Emirates, which includes party capital of the Arabian Peninsula Dubai, is returning to its 2006-2008 trend of 26 percent annual growth in booze sales, which dropped off during the 2009 recession. In Emirate city Abu Dhabi, sales are growing at 28 per cent a year. Dubais airport alone registered a record $1. 4 billion in 2010 sales. Alcohol industry pros also project increases in Qatar and Lebanon. Karr also notes that much of the liquor imported to the Middle East ends up moving to black markets in countries where it is banned. Industry insiders portend that more than a half of the alcohol sold to traders in these emirates ends up being smuggled into Saudi Arabia and elsewhere. In Saudi Arabia, a beat bottle of whiskey can go for $150. Still, thats better than China, where producers ask up to $2,700 for a fancy bottle of Scotch (Fisher 2011). If we count the millions or billions that these countries make out of drinking it wont be enough because alcohol has rick one of the very huge businesses that people can truly work on it and they will get money and be very rich. In Dubai some people deliver alcohol to homes, just call them anytime and tell them what drinks a person want, when and where and they shall delivers it to a persons home. kind of than going to drink outside and paying more just call these people who deliver drinks and a person will get them on time.Other problems are students drinking alcohol before going to university and some actually drink in university which is a bad behavior and it is a huge problem because these students have no idea what they are causing themselves in many problems. The call to consider reducing the legal drinking age from 21 to 18 could spur some valuable discussion, but alone wont solve the college student alcohol problem, According to University Dean of the IU School of command Gerardo Gonzalez, an internationally recognized expert on alcohol and drug education. more than 100 college and university chancellors and presidents have signed a public statement stating that the flow rate legal drinking age of 21 hasnt worked (NewInfo 2008).Teenagers and many boys and girls drink a lot and they think this will make them feel better but it wont make them feel better forever. Alcohol has become one of the biggest successful businesses all over the world because people will never stop drinking, no matter how much a person does and how many laws there are in place. Drinking is ille gal and forbidden in many countries due to the laws and religion and that each country and place differs from one another. In closing and to sum up this essay, the use of alcohol to enhance personal enjoyment and as a method of change magnitude community revenues make the age old custom of consumption traditionally and fundamentally accepted in many different societies.As such the debate over the use and misuse of alcohol has continued as has its stigma as both a sign of maturity and a problem for many sectors of society. Alcohol has effects the society and has affected us in many different ways. This paper has helped establish some of the many arguments for and against the consumption of alcohol it is up to the reader to determine which side of the argument to champion. Bibliography About. com. 2013. http//adam. about. net/reports/Alcoholism. htm. David J. , Hanson, Ph. D. Alcohol Problems and Solutions. http//www2. potsdam. edu/hansondj/Controversies/1114796842. html. Fairobserve r. 2013. http//www. fairobserver. com/article/should-islam-become-more-tolerant-alcohol. Fenton, Dana. Steady Health.December 18, 2009. http//www. steadyhealth. com/articles/Pros_and_Cons_of_Alcohol_Consumption_a1111. html. Fisher, Max. The Atlantic Wire. January 3, 2011. http//www. theatlanticwire. com/global/2011/01/why-are-middle-east-booze-sales-booming/18095/. Michael Brenner, make Media. Opposing Views. http//people. opposingviews. com/drinking-islam-3163. html. NewInfo. August 21, 2008. http//newsinfo. iu. edu/news/page/normal/8692. html. Nuqudy. August 19, 2012. http//english. nuqudy. com/ bolt/Alcohol_Sales_Incre-2878. Thomas White. September 14, 2012. http//www. thomaswhite. com/explore-the-world/Postcard/2012/middle-east-alcohol-consumption. aspx.